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                林兹的威权主义思想及其缺陷研究

                时间:2019-01-17 来源:武汉理工大学学报(社会科学版) 作者:田培利 本文字数:16348字

                  摘    要: 林兹的威权主义非民主体制论存在概念指称不明、特征模糊以及论证不严谨等缺陷。长期以来学界对此未加审视,习惯性地将威权主义等同于“非民主体制”。通过采用萨托利的概念分析法,发现林兹所指的“威权主义”是一种集统治规范与政治手段为一体的政治统治方式,具有独立性和混合性的特点。超越非民主体制论,在理论上将威权主义与非民主体制进行切割,将政治统治方式与政治体制脱钩,有助于更准确地理解威权主义。

                  关键词: 威权主义; 非民主体制; 林兹; 萨托利的传统;

                  Abstract: There is a dominant consensus that Linz's authoritarianism is non-democratic regime.But it's a dogmatic view.On the one hand,Linz's definition of authoritarianism is inconsistent.The term 'authoritarianism' designates not only non-democratic regime,but also a situation,a rule.The meaning is vague.On the other hand,the argument is defective.The need for a conceptual analysis applying with the Sartori tradition is most evident in light of the situation.It finds that authoritarianism is a governing rule,which integrates political rule,political means,characterized by its independence,hybrid.It separate authoritarianism from political regime.

                  Keyword: authoritarianism; non-democratic regime; Linz; the tradition of Giovanni sartori;

                  一、 问题的提出

                  20SHIJIZHIJIN,WEIQUANZHUYILIJINGXINGQIYUSHUAIWEI、BIANGEYUHUICHAO,CHENGWEIYIGERIYIFUZA、NAIRENXUNWEIDEZHENGZHIXIANXIANG。ZUOWEI20SHIJIXIABANYEYILAIZHONGYAODEZHENGZHIXUEJIAZHIYI,LINZIYIWEIQUANZHUYIDEKAICHUANGXINGYANJIUXIANGYUZHENGZHIXUEJIE,KEYISHUOYANJIUWEIQUANZHUYIYANBICHENGLINZI。TASUOZHUZHANGDEWEIQUANZHUYIFEIMINZHUTIZHILUN,YICHENGWEIXUEJIEDEGONGSHI,SHENZHISHICHANGSHI,YIZHIYUXUEZHEMENXINGCHENGLE“WEIQUANZHUYI”JIUSHIFEIMINZHUTIZHIDEGUANXINGRENSHI。RANER,MIANDUILILUNDEYANJIN、XIANSHIDEFAZHAN,TEBIESHI21SHIJIYILAIZHENGZHIGEJUDESHIJI,LINZIDEWEIQUANZHUYILILUNMIANLINYUELAIYUEDUODETIAOZHAN,MIANLINJIJINJIESHISHILINGDEJINGDI。

                  从理论上看,“威权主义(非民主体制)—民主”的类型学框架越来越失去解释力。民主化“第三波”以来,很多国家建立了民主制的政治框架,但是威权主义并未因之消失。这种被称之为“灰色”政治区域或政治“雾区”的混合性现象引起学界的关注。为了对新的政治现象作出有效识别,学者们在民主与威权主义的分类、界定、区分、组合上作了大量研究。按照尽可能增加分析的差异性又避免概念过度延伸的原则,通过种类层级、总—分层级的方法,提出了弱化类型的民主、弱化类型的威权主义等概念[1]。因此,“形容词+威权主义”、“形容词+民主”式的术语不断产生,但囿于“威权主义—民主”的政治体制类型学框架,不仅没有厘清概念以推进理论讨论和经验分析,反而产生了像“民主威权主义”[2]这样更为含混的概念。另外一个更具挑战性的问题是,如果威权主义是非民主体制,那么,如何理解“民主化时代的威权主义”[3]、如何理解混合体制“混合的是什么”[4]?这是一种悖论还是启发学界需要重新理解威权主义?
                 

                林兹的威权主义思想及其缺陷研究
                 

                  CONGSHIJIANSHANGKAN,WEIQUANZHUYIFEIMINZHUTIZHILUNWEINENGZHUNQUEFANYINGZHENGZHISHENGHUOSHIJI。XIANSHIZHONG,WEIQUANZHUYIYUMINZHUDEHUNHESHIYIGEPUBIANDE、ZHANGQIDEXIANXIANG。MILERENWEI[5],XUANJUYUWEIQUANZHUYIYIJINGGONGCUNYUTONGYIZHENGZHISHENGHUOZHONGZHANGDASHUGESHIJI。ZAILADINGMEIZHOU,ZHISHAOYOU12GEWEIQUANGUOJIAZAI19SHIJIXIABANYEKAISHIJINXINGYIHUIHEZONGTONGXUANJU,ERTAMENDELISHIKEYIZHUISUDAO1814NIANMILUDEZONGTONGXUANJU,1837NIANDEGELUNBIYAXUANJULUNTI。ERDAO21SHIJIDEZUICHUSHINIAN,HUNHETIZHIYIJINGZHANDAOQUANBUZHENGZHITIZHIDEJIN25%[6]。LINGYIGESHISHISHI,ZAIGUOJIAJIEGOUZHONGCUNZAI“WEIQUANFEIDI”、“DIFANGXINGWEIQUANZHUYI”DENGWEIQUANZHUYIYUMINZHUXIANGHUJIAOCUODEZHENGZHIXIANXIANG。SUOWEI“WEIQUANFEIDI”ZHIDESHIZAIMINZHUTIZHIDEMOUYILINGYUHUOMOUYIFANGMIANCUNZAIWEIQUANZHUYIZHENGZHIHUODONG。ZHEIYIGAINIANGUANGFANYONGYIYANJIULAMEIMINZHUZHENGZHI,SHENZHIYONGYUGUANYUMEIGUONANBUZHENGZHIDEYANJIU[7]。DIFANGXINGWEIQUANZHUYISHIZHIDANGGUOJIASHIXIANQUANGUOXINGMINZHUHUADEQINGKUANGXIADIFANGRENGCUNZAIWEIQUANZHUYI。JIBUSENYIMOXIGEDEWAHAKA、AGENTINGDESENDIYAGEWEILISHUOMINGZAIFAZHANZHONGHEHOUGONGCHANZHUYISHIJIEMINZHUGUOJIAZHONGDIFANGWEIQUANZHUYISHIYIZHONGZHENSHICUNZAI[8]。

                星力打鱼平台   SHANGSHUQINGKUANGBIAOMING,SHIWEIQUANZHUYIWEIFEIMINZHUTIZHIZAILILUNSHANGHESHIJIANSHANGDOUMIANLINZHETIAOZHAN。JIUQIYUANYINJIUZAIYU,DUIWEIQUANZHUYIDERENSHIZHANGQIYILAISHIZAIMINZHULILUNDETOUJINGXIAGUANCHADE,SHIZAI“WEIQUANZHUYI(FEIMINZHU)—MINZHU”DEZHENGZHITIZHIERFENKUANGJIAXIAZHANKAIDE,ZHEIYULINZIWEIQUANZHUYIFEIMINZHUTIZHILUNDEXUESHUCHUANTONGXIXIXIANGGUAN。ZOUCHUZHEIYIKUNJING,BIXUSHENSHILINZIDEWEIQUANZHUYIFEIMINZHUTIZHILUN。ZHEIZHENGSHIZHONGXINLIJIELINZIWEIQUANZHUYILILUNDEZHONGYAOYIYI。

                  二、 林兹的威权主义研究解析

                  (一) 背景与动因

                  1.林兹有特别的成长经历。

                  GERENJINGLISHIYINGXIANGLINZIKAIZHANWEIQUANZHUYIYANJIUDEZHONGYAOYINSU。LINZISHIXIBANYAREN,DANCHUSHENGYUDEGUOBOEN,DUINACUIDEGUO、FOLANGGESHIQIDEXIBANYAZHENGZHISHENGHUODOUYOUQINSHENGANZHI。TADUIZHENGZHISHEHUIWENTISHIFENZAOSHU,SHISUIZHIQIANJIUMENGFALEDUINACUIZHUYI、FOLANGGEYOUXIANDUOYUANZHUYIDENGWENTIDESISUO。FOLANGGETONGZHISHIQIDEJINGLIZESHITADUIFEIMINZHUTIZHICHANSHENGNONGHOUXINGQU[9]161。SUIRANFUQINWEIDEGUOREN,DANTASHIXIBANYAWEIZUGUO,SHIFENGUANZHUXIBANYAZHENGZHI。YINCI,ZAIMEIGUOQIUXUEQIJIANDUIJIANGFOLANGGEZHENGQUANHUAGUIWEIJIQUANZHUYIDEGUANDIANCHANSHENGLEZHIYI。LINGYIFANGMIAN,TASHUZHIDEGUOZHENGZHIWENTI,DUINACUIDEGUOTIZHIHEFOLANGGEXIBANYATIZHIDECHAYIYOUMINRUIDONGJIAN。TAJULISHUO[9]163,ZAINACUIDEGUOSHIQI,RUGUONIYAOJIEHUN,SHIZHENGTINGHUISONGJINIYITAOXITELEDE《WODEFENDOU》ZUOWEILIWU。ERZAIFOLANGGESHIQI,JIHUMEIRENDUFOLANGGEDEZHEZUO,DADUOSHUSHUDIANYEBUCHUSHOUFOLANGGEDEZHEZUO。ERZHEZAIYISHIXINGTAIKONGZHICHENGDUSHANGDEJUDACHAYIKEJIANYIBAN,ZHEIZHENGSHIQUFENJIQUANZHUYIHEWEIQUANZHUYIDEGUANJIANWEIDU。YOUSHANGKEZHI,LINZIDUILIANGGEZHENGQUAN、LIANGZHONGTIZHILIXINGRENSHIHEGANXINGRENSHIDEJIAOZHI,YINGXIANGLEQIYANJIUZHUTIDEXUANZE,SUZAOLEQIXUESHUGUANDIAN。

                  2.林兹对极权主义有深入认识。

                  LINZIZHISUOYITICHU“WEIQUANZHUYI”GAINIANZHUYAOYUANYU“JIQUANZHUYI”BUNENGZHUNQUEKEHUAFOLANGGEZHENGQUANDEXINGZHI。YINCI,LIJIELINZIDEWEIQUANZHUYIYANJIU,SHOUXIANYAOLIJIEJIQUANZHUYI。LINZIRENWEIJIQUANZHUYISHIXIANDAIXINGDEHOUGUOZHIYI,JUYOUXITONGYISHIXINGTAI、DANYIDEQUNZHONGXINGGONGJUXINGZHENGDANG、YIYUANHUAQUANLIZHONGXINSANGEHEXINYAOSU,TAPOHUAILEGUOJIAYUSHEHUIDEJIEXIAN,JIANLILEZONGTIDEZHENGZHIHUADESHEHUI。[10]66ZAILINZIKANLAI,JINGUANZAIFOLANGGEZAOQIHUIYOUJIQUANZHUYIDEQINGXIANGHEYIXIESHIJIAN,SHENZHIHUIYOULEISIDEYANCI,DANSHIFOLANGGEBINGBUZHUNBEICHUANGZAOYIGEQUANMIANKONGZHIYIQIEDEZONGTIXINGGUOJIA[9]162。YUANYINZAIYUSHIXIANJIQUANZHUYIJIXUYAOYIDINGDEJISHUJINGJITIAOJIAN,YOUXUYAOYOUQIANGYOULIDEDANYIZHENGDANGZUOWEISHEHUIJICHU。DANXIBANYAZHENGZHIZHONGDEDUOYUANYINSUCONGWEIXIAOCHU,YINCI,XIBANYACONGLAIBUJUBEIZHEIYANGDEBIYAOTIAOJIAN,JIANGXIBANYASHIWEIJIQUANZHUYIBINGBUQIADANG。DANGRAN,FOLANGGEYEBUSHITUJIANLIYIGEMINZHUTIZHI[10]162,YOUCILINZITICHU“WEIQUANZHUYI”GAINIAN。ZAICIHOUDEYANJIUZHONG,JIQUANZHUYIYUWEIQUANZHUYIZHIJIANDEGUANXI、FENLEIYUFENXINGDENGWENTIYIZHIGUANCHUANLINZIFEIMINZHUZHENGZHITIZHIDEYANJIUSHIZHONG,BINGQIEBUDUANXIUJINGAIJIN,ZHEIDOULIBUKAILINZIDUIJIQUANZHUYIDESHENRULIJIE。

                  3.政治发展类型学面临挑战。

                  FULIDELIXI、BUREWEIJINSIJI、XIGEMENGDE·NIUMAN、ALUNTEDENGRENJIYU“JIQUANZHUYI—MINZHU”DEZHENGZHITIZHIHUAFENFANGSHI,DUIFEIMINZHUTIZHIKAIZHANLEYANJIU。LINZIRENWEI[11]251,JIANGJIQUANZHUYI—MINZHUSHIWEIERFENFAHUOLIANXUTONGJINXINGZHENGZHITIZHIFENLEIDAILAIHENDUOWENTI,ZHUYAOSHI,YIFANGMIAN,ZHENGRUYINGKEERSISUOYAN:“ZAIJIQUANZHUYIMOSHIZHONGNANGKUOLEXIANGNACUITIZHIZHEIYANGFEICHANGJIEJINJIQUANZHUYI(LIXIANGXING)DEZHENGZHITIXI,YEYOUFAXISIZHEIYANGBUZENYANGXIANGDE,HAIYOUXIBANYAZHEIYANGZHIZAIMOUXIEFANGMIANXIANGDEZHENGZHITIXI。”ERDUIDANGSHIDEYIXIEXINXINGDULIDEGUOJIA,ZEHUIGUANYIYIN“XINGRONGCI+”DESHUYULAIMIAOSHU。RU,ZHIDAOXINGMINZHUZHI、JIBENMINZHUZHI、ZONGTONGZHUYIMINZHUDENG。[11]280LINGYIFANGMIAN,ZAIJIANGYIXIEZHENGZHITIXIHUAFENWEIZHEIYIJIHUOLINGYIJISHI,QUEFAKEXUEDEBIAOZHUN。SHANGSHUQINGKUANGYUDANGQIANWEIQUANZHUYIYANJIUZHONGMIANLINDEWENTIRUCHUYIZHE。YINCI,CHAOYUE“JIQUANZHUYI—MINZHU”FENLEIFANGFA,YIFAHUILEIXINGGOUJIANZAIZHENGZHIXUEYANJIUZHONGDEZUOYONG,CHENGWEIDANGSHIXUESHUMIANLINDETIAOZHAN,YESHIXUESHUFAZHANDEYIGETUPOKOU。

                  4.世界政治格局深刻变动。

                  WULUNSHILINZIDUIYUXIBANYAZHENGZHIDEGUANXIN、HAISHIDUIJIQUANZHUYIDELIJIE,YIJIZHENGZHIFAZHANLEIXINGXUEMIANLINDETIAOZHAN,DOUXUYAOCONGSHIJIEZHENGZHIGEJUDESHENKEBIANDONGZHONGXUNZHAODONGYIN。ERZHANHOUJIUDEZHIMINTIXIWAJIE,YIDAPIGUOJIATONGGUOMINZUJIEFANGYUNDONGHUODEDULI,CONG1946NIANDAO1970NIAN,SHIJIEZHENGZHISHITICONG80GEGUOJIAZENGJIA130DUOGE,CHENGXIANCHU“DILIYOUJIE、ZHENGZHIDANYUANWUXIANPENGZHANG”DEZHUANGKUANG,ZHENGZHITIXIDEGUANGPUBUDUANYANSHEN[12]。ZHENGZHIXUEMIANLINDESHOUYAOWENTISHIRUHEBAGENGDUODEGUOJIANARUZHENGZHITIXIDELEIXINGGOUZAOZHONGQU,JINERZAIKUAGUODE、DAGUIMODEBIJIAOZHENGZHIYANJIUSHANGZUOCHUNULI。ZHEIJIUYIWEIXUYAOTICHUXINDEGAINIANXINDELILUNFENXIGONGJUQUBAWOXIANSHIZHENGZHIDEBIANHUA。YUCITONGSHI,CONG1959NIANKAISHI,FOLANGGEZHENGQUANSHIXINGJINGJIGAIGEZIYOUHUA,SHEHUIZHUANXINGHEXIANDAIHUAJIASU,ZHENGZHISHANGZHUJIANKUANRONG,FAZHISHANGZHUJIANJIANQUAN,SHEHUISHANGZHUJIANDUOYUAN,JINGJISHANGZOUXIANGFAZHANZHUYIDEDAOLU,DAO20SHIJI60NIANDAIHOUQI,FOLANGGEZHUCHIDEZHENGZHITIZHIGENGJIAKAIFANG、GENGJIAFUZE。[13]345-372ZHEIYESHILINZIBUTONGYUQITAXUEZHEZHUZHANGFOLANGGEZHENGQUANSHIWEIQUANZHUYIDEYIGESHIDAIYINSU。DAO20SHIJI90NIANDAI,SHOUSUDONGJUBIANDENGZHONGDAZHENGZHISHIJIANYINGXIANG,LINZIRENWEIZHENGZHITIZHIDESANFENFADUI“MINZHULILUNJIAHEXINGDONGZHE”“SANGSHILEYIWANGDEYONGTU,ERQIEYIJINGCHENGWEIYIZHONGZHANGAI”[14],WEICI,TAYOUTICHUZHONGGOUFEIMINZHUZHENGZHITIZHIDEFENLEITIXI。ZHEIYIWEIZHEXIANSHIZHENGZHIDEBIANQIANSHITUIDONGZHENGZHIXUEYANJIUDEGENBENYUANYINHECHUFADIAN,ZHENGZHIXUEZAIBUDUANHUIYINGXIANSHIDETIAOZHANZHONGFAZHAN。

                  (二) 主要内容和贡献

                  1.定义“威权主义”。

                  LINZISHOUCITICHULEGUANYUWEIQUANZHUYIDEDINGYI。RENWEIWEIQUANZHUYISHIRUXIAYIZHONGZHENGZHITIXI,TAJUYOUYOUXIANDE、MEIYOUZERENXINGDEZHENGZHIDUOYUANZHUYI,CUNZAIYIDINGDEGUANNIANQINGXIANG,DANQUEFAYITAOZHUDAOXINGDEJINGXIDEYISHIXINGTAI;CHUMOUYIFAZHANSHIQIZHIWAI,MEIYOUGUANGFANSHENRUDEZHENGZHIDONGYUAN;WEIQUANLINGXIUGEREN(YOUSHIHUOSHIYOUSHAOSHURENZUCHENGDEJITUAN)DEQUANLIXINGSHISUIRANQUEFAMINGQUEDEJIEDING,DANSHIJISHANGQUEXIANGDANGCHENGDUSHANGKEYIYUCE”[11]255。YOUXIANDUOYUANZHUYI、KUANSONGDEYISHIXINGTAI、YOUXIANDEZHENGZHIDONGYUAN、FEIZERENXINGDEQUANLIYUNXING,SHIWEIQUANZHUYIDEZHUYAOTEZHENG,SHIYUQITATIZHIQUFENDEZHUYAOWEIDU。QIZHONGZUIHEXINDETEZHENGSHIYOUXIANDUOYUANZHUYI,TUCHUBIAOXIANWEICUNZAIYIXIEDUOYUANZHUYIDEZHIDUANPAI。ZHEISHIYUJIQUANZHUYIGUOJIATUNSHISHEHUI、MINZHUTIZHIXIABUSHOUXIANZHIDEDUOYUANZHUYIYOUXIANZHEQUBIE。ZHEIYIGAINIANBUJINQINGXIJIEDINGLEFOLANGGEZHENGQUANDEZHUYAOTEZHENG[15]28,GENGWEIZHONGYAODESHIWEIJIFEIJIQUANZHUYIYOUFEIMINZHUTIZHIDE“ZHONGJIANLEIXING”ZHENGZHITIZHIZHAODAOLEGONGTONGDE“BIAOQIAN”。ZHEISHIDEYUELAIYUEDUODEGUOJIABEINARULEWEIQUANZHUYILILUNSHIYE,ZAIBIJIAOZHENGZHIXUEYANJIUZHONGCHANSHENGZHONGYAOYINGXIANG。

                  2.提出威权主义是一种非民主体制。

                  “WEIQUANZHUYI”GAINIANSHIZAIYUJIQUANZHUYI、MINZHUTIZHIDEDUIZHAOZHONG,YOUQISHIYUJIQUANZHUYIDEDUIZHAOZHONG,YIFOLANGGEZHENGQUANWEIYUANXINGERXINGCHENGDE,ZHUYAOSHISHITUCONGJIQUANZHUYIZHONGBOLI“WEIQUANZHUYI”。ZHEISHIGAINIANQINGXIHUA、FENLEIZHUNQUEHUADENULI。LINZIRENWEI[16]145,ZUOWEIFEIMINZHUTIZHIDEYIZHONGLEIXING,WEIQUANZHUYISHI“ZICHENGYITIDE”、“DUTEDE”DEYIZHONGTIZHI,JUYOUPUBIANXINGYUDUOYANGXING。ERCIQIANDEFEIMINZHUZHENGZHITIZHIFENLEIZHONGJINYOUJIQUANZHUYIYIZHONG,BINGJUTIZHIXIANGNACUIDEGUOHEDANGSHIDESULIAN。DANLINZIBINGWEIZAIDINGYIZHONGMINGQUEJIEDINGWEIQUANZHUYIWEIFEIMINZHUTIZHI,ERSHIZAITICHUJIQUANZHUYIYUWEIQUANZHUYIDEQUBIESHISHIZHIXINGDEERFEI“FEIMINZHUTIZHI”FAZHANDEBUTONGJIEDUANSHISHOUCITIJI[11]260。WEIQUANZHUYIFEIMINZHUTIZHILUNYOUCICHANSHENG。CIHOU,《JIQUANZHUYIYUWEIQUANZHUYITIZHI》YIWENQUANMIANJINXINGLELUNSHU,JIAOZHI《WEIQUANZHUYITIZHI:YIXIBANYAWEILI》,GAIWENJINYIBUMIAOSHULEWEIQUANZHUYITIZHISIGEWEIDU,JIANGOULEWEIQUANZHUYILEIXINGXUE。

                  3.建立现代非民主政治体制类型学。

                  YIKAOCHAFOLANGGEZHENGQUANWEICHUFADIAN,LINZIKAISHILEFEIMINZHUZHENGZHITIZHILEIXINGXUEDEYANJIU。“JIQUANZHUYI—WEIQUANZHUYI—MINZHU”DEHUAFENWEILINZIKAIZHANXITONGDEFEIMINZHUTIZHIBIJIAODIANDINGLEJICHU。ZAI1975NIANCHUBANDE《ZHENGZHIKEXUESHOUCE》ZHONGQUANJINGSHIDIDUIBAOKUOJIQUANZHUYI、CHUANTONGQUANWEIHEGERENTONGZHI、WEIQUANZHUYIZAINEIDEFEIMINZHUTIZHIJINXINGLEFENLEIYANJIU。ZAIZHEIPIANZHANGWENZHONG,YIFANGMIAN,LINZIQUFENLEXIANDAIFEIMINZHUTIZHIYUCHUANTONGFEIMINZHUTIZHI。RENWEIJIQUANZHUYIYUWEIQUANZHUYITIZHISHUYUXIANDAIFEIMINZHUTIZHI,HOUZHEBAOKUOKAODILVE、SUDANZHIDENG。1996NIANJINYIBUJIANGSUDANZHI、HOUJIQUANZHUYINARUXIANDAIFEIMINZHUTIZHI。LINGYIFANGMIAN,TICHUGUANLIAO—JUNSHIWEIQUANZHUYI、YOUJIGUOJIAZHUYI、HOUMINZHUSHEHUIDEDONGYUANXINGWEIQUANZHUYIDENG6GEYAXING。LINZIDEYANJIUZHANSHILEKUANGUANGDELILUNSHIYEHESHENHOUDEXUESHI,BEICHENGWEI20SHIJISIXIANGJIAZHONGSHAOYOUDENENGGOUJIANGCHONGFENDELISHIZHISHIYUYUANDADELILUNBAOFUJIEHEQILAIXITONGKAIZHANDANGDAIZHENGZHIYANJIUDEXUEZHE[15]27。

                  4.实现哲学—法学研究路径向经验研究的转变。

                  20SHIJI20—30NIANDAI,OUZHOUXINGQIWEIQUANZHUYIYANJIU。DANGSHIDEGUOJIALILUNHEXIANFAXUEZHESHIMITE、QIGELE、HAILE、WOGELINDENGRENYIJIFALANKEFUXUEPAIDEZHUYAOCHENGYUANDOUCANJIADAOLEWEIQUANZHUYIDETAOLUNZHIZHONG,TAOLUNDUIXIANGZHUYAOSHIWEIMAGONGHEGUO、DEGUONACUIDENG,WEIRAODEZHONGXINWENTISHIWEIJISHIQIGUOJIAZHENGZHIZHIXUDEWEIXIYIJIYUBAOSHOUZHUYIZHENGZHIJINGJIDEGEJUZHUANHUAN、FAZHANDAOLUDENGDENG,ZHEIXIEWENTIYESHISHIDAIWENTI,SHI20SHIJISHANGBANYE“JIDUANNIANDAI”ZAIXUESHUSHANGDEHUIYING。DANZHEIXIETAOLUNYOUNONGHOUDEZHEXUE、FAXUESECAI。LINZICONG20SHIJI50NIANDAIQIZAIGELUNBIYADAXUEJIESHOUSHEHUIKEXUEXUNLIAN,TADUIWEIQUANZHUYIDEYANJIUSHICONGZHENGZHIKEXUEDEJIAODUCHUFADE。YIFANGMIAN,HUIGUIBIJIAOZHENGZHIXUEFENLEICHUANTONG,CONGJIANGOULEIXINGDEJIAODUKAIZHANLEJINGYANYANJIU,BAWEIQUANZHUYISHIWEIZHENGZHITIZHIDEYIZHONGLIXIANGXING,LINGYIFANGMIAN,LINZISHIDANGSHIWEIYIYIGECONGGONGNENGZHUYISHIJIAODUIWEIQUANZHUYIJINXING“ZUIWEIKEXINHEXITONGDEYANJIU”DEXUEZHE[17],TEBIESHIGUANYUWEIQUANZHUYIDEDINGYIYANGAILEYISHIXINGTAIPANDUAN,QIMOXINGKEYISHIYONGYUTONGLEIZHENGZHITIZHIDEYANJIU。YOUCI,ZAIKEXUEHUASHANGMAICHUZHONGYAOYIBU,SHIXIANLEWEIQUANZHUYIYANJIULUJINGDEZHUANBIAN。

                  三、 林兹威权主义非民主体制论的主要缺陷

                  LINZIDEHEZUOZHE、YESHITADEXUESHENGMINGEERRENWEI,HANHUNMAODUN、GUANDIANYAOBAISHILINZISUOXIHUANDEZHESHUFENGGE[18]7。WEIQUANZHUYIFEIMINZHUTIZHILUNYECUNZAITONGYANGDEWENTI。YIFANGMIAN,ZAI“WEIQUANZHUYI”DEZHICHENGSHANG,LINZIBINGWEIQINGXIYIZHIDIZHIMINGWEIQUANZHUYISHI“ZHENGZHITIZHI”,ZAIWEIQUANZHUYIDETEZHENGSHANG,QIMIAOSHUMOHULE“FEIMINZHU”YU“MINZHU”DEJIEXIAN,LINGYIFANGMIAN,LINZISUOSHUDEGUANDIANYUQISUOKAIZHANDELUNZHENGBINGBUTONGYI,LILUNBINGBULIANGUANTONGTOU,ZAILUNZHENGSHANGCUNZAIZHUDUOXIACI。JIANYANZHI,LINZIDEWEIQUANZHUYIFEIMINZHUTIZHILUNCHONGMANNEIZHIMAODUN,QUEFAYOULILUNZHENG。LONGTONGDIRENWEIWEIQUANZHUYISHIFEIMINZHUTIZHISHIXUEJIEDEYIGEMOSHIHUADERENSHI,YOUYIECHUANE、SHIZHIYUKEBANHUAZHIXIAN。

                  (一) 指称不明:“威权主义”有多种指向

                  1.威权主义是有特指的政治体制。

                星力打鱼平台   LINZIJIAOTISHIYONG“WEIQUANZHUYI”YU“WEIQUANTIZHI”[11]263-268LIANGGESHUYU,JIANGWEIQUANZHUYIDENGTONGYUZHENGZHITIZHI(political regime)。DANDUIYUHEWEI“ZHENGZHITIZHI”,BINGMEIYOUZHENGSHIDINGYI,ERSHICONGGUOJIA—SHEHUIGUANXIDEJIAODU,CONG“WEIQUANTIZHI”、“WEIQUANZHENGFU”、“WEIQUANSHEHUI”DEGAINIANQUFENZHONGLIJIE“ZHENGZHITIZHI”DEHANYI。RENWEIWEIQUANZHUYISHI“ZHENGZHITIZHI”ERFEI“ZHENGFU”,YINWEIZAIWEIQUANZHUYIQINGXINGXIA,QIZHENGZHIJIGOUDEZHUANMENHUA、FENHUACHENGDUJIAODI,YU“ZHENGFU”XIANGBI,“TIZHI”YICIDEZHIXIANGGENGWEIKUANFAN,DANJIAOWEIZHUNQUE。ZHEIZAIYUBUJINJINZHIYOUZHENGFUCHENGDANLEWEIQUANZHUYIDEGONGNENG,QITAZHENGZHIJIQIYESHIRUCI[10]160-161。LINGYIFANGMIAN,MEIYOUSHIYONG“WEIQUANSHEHUI”YICI,YINWEIYUJIQUANZHUYIXIANGBI,ZAIWEIQUANZHUYITIZHIZHONGGUOJIAYUSHEHUIFENYEYIRANCUNZAI,BINGMEIYOUXIAOSHI,SHEHUIBINGMEIYOUWANQUANBEIGUOJIATUNSHI。“TIZHI”JISHUOMINGLEWEIQUANTIZHIXIA“SHEHUI”DECUNZAI,YEBIAOMINGSHEHUIBINGBUSHIYIGEDULIYUGUOJIA、ZHENGZHIDELINGYU,ZHENGZHIJIGOUHUISHENTOU、GANYUSHEHUISHENGHUO,SHENZHISUZAOSHEHUI,ERBUSHIFANGRENSHEHUI。SHEHUIDEZIZHUXINGYUMINZHUGUOJIAYOUMINGXIANQUBIE。YINCI,LINZISUOZHIDE“ZHENGZHITIZHI”SHIYU“WEIQUANZHUYI”YOUTEDINGGUANLIANDE,MIAOSHULEWEIQUANZHUYIXIATEYOUDEZHENGZHIZHUANGTAI、ZHENGZHIXIANXIANG。KEYISHUO,“ZHENGZHITIZHI(political regime)”ZHIDEJIUSHIWEIQUANZHUYI。

                  2.威权主义是某种政治体系。

                星力打鱼平台   LINZIZUICHUSHITONGGUOTAOLUNZHENGZHITIXIDELEIXINGTICHU“WEIQUANZHUYI”DE,BINGZAIDINGYIZHONGMINGQUEZHICHU“WEIQUANTIZHISHIZHENGZHITIXI”[11]255。QIZHUYAODONGYINZHIYIBIANSHIRENWEIYI“JIQUANZHUYI—MINZHU”ERFENFABUZUYIZHUNQUEGAIKUO、FENXIFOLANGGEZHENGQUANDEZHENGZHIZHUANGKUANG。CONG“JIQUANZHUYI—MINZHU”ERFENFAFAZHANWEI“JIQUANZHUYI—WEIQUANZHUYI—MINZHU”SANFENFA,BAYIFOLANGGESHIQIXIBANYAWEIDAIBIAODEYILEIZHENGZHITIXISHIWEIDUTEDEYIGELEIXING,MUDEZAIYUGENGKEXUE、GENGYOUXIAODIDUIZHENGZHITIXIJINXINGFENLEI。YINCI,LINZIRENWEIWEIQUANZHUYISHIYUJIQUANZHUYI、MINZHUBINGXINGDEYIZHONGZHENGZHITIXI。JINER,BAYANJIUDEZHELIDIANJIZHONGZAIZHENGZHITIXIDE“MOUYIGECEMIAN、MOUYIGETEZHENG”SHANG,ZHEIYESHILINZISUOMINGQUEZHICHUDEJUJIAOYUQUANLIXINGSHIFANGSHI、ZUZHIFANGSHI、LIANJIESHEHUIDEFANGSHI,JUJIAOYUXINYANGTIXIDEBENZHI,JUJIAOYUGONGMINZAIZHENGZHIGUOCHENGZHONGDEJIAOSE[10]160,YEJIUSHICONGZHENGZHITIXIDEZHENGZHIWEIDUJINXINGFENXI。

                  3.威权主义是某种政治局势。

                星力打鱼平台   LINZIZAI《JIQUANZHUYIHEWEIQUANZHUYI》ZHONGTICHU,WEIQUANJUSHIYESHIYIZHONGWEIQUANZHUYI[10]240-245。TAJUTIYILIANGZHONGQINGXINGJIAYISHUOMING:YISHIQIANJIQUANZHUYIJIEDUANDEZHENGZHIXINGSHI,RU,DEGUOJIQUANZHUYI、YIDALIFAXISIZHUYIDENGXINGCHENGJIEDUANZAOCHENGDEJUMIAN。ZHEIYIJIEDUAN,YOULIYUJIQUANZHUYIDEYINSUZHENGZAIXINGCHENG,TEBIESHIFEICHANGZHONGYAODEZHUIQIUJIQUANZHUYIWUTUOBANGDEZUZHIZAIXINGCHENG,DANSHIQIDIWEISHANGWEIGONGGU,JIQUANZHUYISHANGWEICHENGWEIZHIDU。YUCITONGSHI,YIXIEZUZHI、JIGOUBIRUJUNDUI、JIAOHUI、SHANGYEZUZHI、LIYIJITUANDENGRENGRANYOUYIDINGDEZIZHUXING,DUOYUANZHUYIRENGRANCUNZAI。LINGYIZHONGQINGXINGSHIZHIWEIQUANZHUYIWEINENGZHIDUHUADEYIZHONGZHENGZHIZHUANGTAI。BIRU,1964NIANYILAIBAXIJUNRENZHENGQUANTONGZHISHIQIDEZHUANGKUANG[19]。WEIXIAOCHUFUBAI,JIESHUGULATEZHENGFUZAOCHENGDEHUNLUAN、XIAOCHUGONGCHANZHUYIWEIXIE、HUIFUMINZHU,BAXIJUNRENCAIQUZHONGZHONGJINJICUOSHI,DANBINGMEIYOUFEIZHIDANGSHIYOUXIAODE1946NIANXIANFA,ERSHILIQIUBAOCHIYIDINGDEMINZHUZHENGZHITIZHIDEYAOSU。BUGUO,YOUYUBANXINGDEZHIDUFABIANHUAJIJU、CIJIANXIANFADECHUANGZHIYUXIUZHENG、ZONGTONGJIRENYINFADEJILIEZHENGZHIDOUZHENGDENGDENG,BAXIJUNRENZHENGQUANCHUYUYIZHONGBUWENDINGDEZHUANGTAIZHONG,WEIQUANZHUYIBINGMEIYOUZHIDUHUA。YINCI,1973NIANLINZIZAI《WEIQUANBAXIDEWEILAI》YIWENZHONGZHICHUBAXIZHENGZHIZHIDUZUIZHONGHUISHISHENMEXINGZHIYUANWEIQUEDING[20]235,BAXIJUNRENZHENGQUANSUOCHUDEBUGUOSHIYIZHONGWEIQUANXINGSHI、JUSHI。

                  (二) 特征模糊:有限多元主义与民主边界不清

                  YOUXIANDUOYUANZHUYISHIWEIQUANZHUYIDEHEXINTEZHENG,SHIWEIQUANZHUYIQUBIEYUJIQUANZHUYI、MINZHUTIZHIDEGUANJIAN。YINCI,YOUXIANDUOYUANZHUYIYECHENGWEIXUEZHEMENDUILINZIWEIQUANZHUYIGAINIANPIPINGDEJIAODIAN[15]36。XIBANYALISHIWENTIYANJIUZHELAMULEIZIRENWEI,ZHENGZHIXUEJIAYIJINGSHENRUDICHANSHILEDUOYUANZHUYI,ZHIYOUDANGQUANLIYOUBUTONGDELAIYUANSHIJIANGDUOYUANZHUYICAIYOUYIYI,LINZIWUYONGLE“DUOYUANZHUYI”,ZHEIYANGSHIYONGSHUYUSHIBUGOUYANJINDE。LAOLAZERENWEI,LINZIHUNXIAOLESHEHUILINGYUDEDUOYUANHUAHEYOUDUOYUANZHUYIZHECHUANGZAODEFALV—XIANFADUOYUANZHUYI。HUNXIAOZHEILIANGGEWENTIHOUGUOSHIYANZHONGDE,XUCHENGDANYANZHONGDEXUESHUZEREN[15]36。JINGUANLINZIYETICHUWEIQUANZHUYISHIYOUXIANDUOYUANZHUYIYUMINZHUTIZHIXIADEWUXIANDUOYUANZHUYIBUTONG,DANZHENDUILINZIDEZHEIXIEPIPINGSHIYOUYIDINGDEDAOLI。CONGLINZIGUANYUWEIQUANZHUYIYOUXIANDUOYUANZHUYIDELUNSHUZHONGKEYIFAXIANLINZIDEDINGYISUOXIAOLEWEIQUANZHUYIYUMINZHUDEJULI,MOHULEERZHEDEQUBIE。

                  1.政治权力多元化。

                星力打鱼平台   ANZHAOLINZIDEMIAOSHU,YOUXIANDUOYUANZHUYISUOTIXIANCHUDEWEIQUANZHUYIDEZUIDATEZHENGZAIYUTABINGBUSHITUKONGZHIZHENGGESHEHUI、JINGJI、WENHUADENGZUZHIHEJIGOU。SHEHUISHANGCUNZAIBUYOUHUOBUYIFUYUGUOJIACHUANGLIDETUANTI,JIAOHUI、JUNDUI、GUANLIAODENGDOUSHIDULIDESHEHUIGONGGONGJIGOU。QUANLITONGDAOBINGWEIBEIDANYIZUZHIWANQUANLONGDUAN[11]264,ZAIYIDINGFANWEINEIHAICUNZAIQUANLIDEJINGZHENG,ZHENGDANGZHISHIQUANLIDUOYUANZHUYIDEYIGEXUANXIANG[22]。CONGZHANGQIANGDANGDAOGUOMINYUNDONG,SUIRANSHIFOLANGGESHIQIDEWEIYIZHENGDANG,DANBINGBUSHIYIGEZUZHIJIANQUAN、JILVYANMIDEZHENGDANG。1939NIANHOUZHANGQIANGDANGSANMANWUXU,ZUOWEI“TONGYIDANG”CONGWEIYONGYOUHAOWUZHENGYIDETONGZHIQUAN[21]120-123,1943NIAN9YUEYIXIANGGONGBAOZHICHU,ZHANGQIANGDANGBUZAISHIYIGEZHENGDANG,ERBEIGUOMINYUNDONGSUOQUDAI,ZHIZAILIANHEGENGGUANGFANDESHILI[13]258。TONGZHIJITUANYIJISHEHUIJINGYINGGOUCHENGTIXIANCHUXIANGDANGDEYIZHIXING、JIAZHIZHUZHANGYECHENGXIANCHUDUOYUANXING。JUQITONGJI[11]275-276,1938—1962NIANJIANXIBANYANEIGEZHONGYOULAIZIZHANGQIANGDANG、JUNFANG、BAOHUANGZHUYIZHEYIJIJISHUHUOMINSHIZHUANJIA、TIANZHUJIAODENGFANGFANGMIANMIANDEJINGYING,ZHEIYUJIQUANZHUYIDEQINGYISEDEZUCHENGYOUHENDAQUBIE。CONGJINGYINGDEZONGTIGOUCHENGLAIKAN,ZHANGQIANGDANGCHENGYUANZAINEIGE、YIHUI、DIFANGXINGZHENGZUZHIDENGBINGWEIZHANDUOSHU,ZAIJICENGDESHIZHENGZHENGWUHUIZHONGSHENZHIBUDAO10%[11]279-280

                  2.政治参与多元化。

                  YIFANGMIAN,CUNZAIRENKEDEHUOMORENDEGONGKAIDEZHENGZHIFANDUILILIANG。SUIRANFOLANGGEZHENGQUANJINZHIFANDUIDANGDECUNZAI,DANSHIRONGRENZHENGZHIFANDUIPAIDECUNZAI,BINGQIEZHENGZHIFANDUILILIANGCHENGXIANCHUDUOYUANDEZHUANGTAI。ANZHAOFANDUIPAIYUTIZHIDEGUANXI,KEYIFENWEITIZHINEIFANDUIPAI、TIZHIWAIFANDUIPAI。TIZHINEIFANDUIPAI,YECHENGWEIBANFANDUIPAI,JIBENRENTONGHUOZANSHIJIESHOUZHENGQUAN,BINGBUZAIGENBENSHANGTIAOZHANZHENGZHITIZHI,DANZAIJUTIZHENGCEDEQUXIANGSHANG、GUOJIADEFAZHANFANGXIANGSHANGHUICHIYOUBUTONGYIJIAN。ZHUYAOSHICHANGDAOBUTONGZHENGCEGUANZHUDIANDETUANTI、JINGYINGNEIBUDEYIJIANZHE、QICHURENTONGTIZHIDANBINGWEICANZHENGDEYIJIANZHE[22]191-199。TIZHIWAIFANDUIPAIBAOKUOFAWAIFANDUIPAIHEFEIFAFANDUIPAI。QIANZHECONGYANGEYIYISHANGJIANGBINGMEIYOUWEIFADEHUODONG、MEIYOUSHOUDAOFALVZHICAI,DANXUNQIUGAIBIANJIBENDETIZHI[22]219,YUTIZHIDEXIANFAJINGSHENXIANGBEI。LINGYIFANGMIAN,CUNZAIZHENGZHICANYUJIZHI。ZILIWEILASHIQI,XIBANYAJIUCHUANGLILEDEGUOMINYIHUI,GUANGFANXINAJIAOHUI、WENHUAJIGOU、JUNDUI、SHANGJIEDENGDAIBIAOCANYUZHENGZHI,BINGGULISHANGJIECHENGLILIYIJITUAN。ZHEIXIEDOUWEIZHIDUHUADEZHENGZHICANYUTIGONGLEPINGTAI[11]256。ZAIYIHUIDENGJIGOU,YUNXUFANDUIPAIDUIZHENGFUZHENGCEJINXINGTAOLUN,BUSHAOZHENGFUDEYIANBEIGEZHIHUOZHEZUOCHUZHONGDAXIUGAI。ZHENGQUANNEIBUBUTONGJITUANZHIJIANJIEZHUYIHUIPINGTAIJINXINGZHIXUN、BIANLUN[22]205。

                  3.意识形态多元化。

                  YUJIQUANTIZHI、MINZHUTIZHIXIANGBI,WEIQUANZHUYIDEYISHIXINGTAISHIYIZHONGRUOHUADEYISHIXINGTAI,LINZICHENGZHIWEIZHENGZHILINIAN。ZHENGZHILINIANYUYISHIXINGTAIDECHABIESHILIJIEWEIQUANZHUYIJIWEIZHONGYAODEYIGEBIANLIANG,ZHENGZHILINIANSHIYIZHONGSIXIANGRENSHI,JIAZHIQUXIANG、ZHENGCEZHUZHANG,SHENZHISHIYIZHONGZHENGZHISUQIU。YUYISHIXINGTAIXIANGBI,ZHENGZHILINIANQUEFALILUNXING、XITONGXING、LIANGUANXING、SHENKEXING、ZONGHEXING,MINGQUEQUEFAQIANGLIEDEWUTUOBANGYINSU。BIRU,SHEHUISHANGYUNXUGEZHONGSIXIANGLIUPAICUNZAI,YIDUJINZHIDEMAKESIZHUYISHUJIHUIFUCHUANBO,SHIMIANSHANGBUTONGMAKESIZHUYIZHEDEYIZUOJUNYOUXIAOSHOU[22]211。ZAIYISHIXINGTAIDEGUANZHISHANG,WEIQUANZHUYIMEIYOUQIANGLIEDEZHENGZHIGUANSHU、MEIYOUYIGUANDEXUANCHUANGUDONG。ZAIXIBANYADAXUEDEYIXIETUSHUGUANSHENZHIMEIYOUFOLANGGEDEZHEZUO。YIXIEZUZHI,RUJIAOHUI,QICHUBANWUMIANYUZHENGFUDESHENCHA,XINGCHENGLEBUSHOUZHENGFUGANYUDEYULUNGUDAO[11]266。

                  (三) 论证有疵:观点所述与所论不一致

                  1.“自成一类的体制”与体制分类的残余项。

                星力打鱼平台   LINZIRENWEI,GUANYUWEIQUANZHUYIDERENSHIYOULIANGZHONGQINGXIANG,YISHIRENWEIWEIQUANZHUYISHIYOUQUEXIANDEJIQUANZHUYIHUOMINZHU,ZUIZHONGYAOZOUXIANGJIQUANZHUYIHUOMINZHUDEFANGXIANG[10]252-253。ZHUZHANGWEIQUANZHUYISHIYOUQUEXIANDEWEIQUANZHUYIDEGUANDIANRENWEI,ZHISUOYIMEIYOUSHIXIANJIQUANZHUYI,SHIYINWEIXINGZHENGGUANLIWUXIAOLV、JINGJILUOHOUHUOZHESHOUDAOWAIBUYINGXIANGHUOYALI。RENWEIWEIQUANZHUYISHIMOUZHONGLEIXINGDEMINZHUDEGUANDIAN,ZEBAWEIQUANZHUYIDENGTONGWEI“YOUJIMINZHU”、“XUANZEXINGMINZHU”HUO“ZHIDAOXINGMINZHU”DENGXINGXINGSESEDEMINZHU。ZHEIZHONGLIANGZHONGQINGXIANGJUNRENWEIWEIQUANZHUYISHICONGJIQUANZHUYIZOUXIANGMINZHUDELIANXUTONGSHANGDEMOUGEDIAN,QIZHONGDIANHUISHIMINZHUHUOJIQUANZHUYI。LINZIZERENWEIWEIQUANZHUYISHI“ZICHENGYILEI”DEZHENGZHITIZHI,YOUQIDUTEDEBENZHI,ERFEIJIQUANZHUYIYUMINZHUTIZHILIANXUTONGSHANGDEMOUYIDIAN。LINGYIFANGMIAN,LINZIRENWEI“BUSHISHENME”SHIXIADINGYIZUIJIANBIANDEFANGFA,BINGTONGGUO“FEI+”DEFOUDINGXINGFANGSHILAIJIEDINGWEIQUANZHUYI。ANZHAOZHEIYIFANGFA,LINZIJIANGJIFEIJIQUANZHUYIYOUFEIMINZHUDEZHENGZHITIXIDINGYIWEIWEIQUANZHUYI。ERYOUJIANGJIQUANZHUYIYUWEIQUANZHUYIDINGYIWEINEIXIEBUXIANGMINZHUDEZHENGZHITIXI。XIANRAN,YUQISHUOZHEISHIDINGYIFANGFA,BURUSHUOYIZHONGGUILEIFANGSHI。YUCITONGSHI,SUIRANLINZITAOLUNLEMINZHUDEDINGYI,BINGYIXIONGBITEDEJINGZHENGXINGMINZHUHEDAERDEDUOYUANMINZHUZUOWEIQISUOLIJIEDE“MINZHU”。DANLINZIBINGWEIYANGEANZHAOGAINIANNEIHANDERONGCHIXINGJIEDING“FEIMINZHUTIZHI”,DUIYUWEIHEWEIQUANZHUYISHIFEIMINZHUDE,BINGWEIZUOSHENRUFENXI,ZHISHISHI“ZHISHAOZAIMOUYITEZHENGSHANGBUTONGYUMINZHUDEZHENGZHITIXI”WEIFEIMINZHUTIZHI[10]51,ZHEIDAOZHI“WEIQUANZHUYI”CHENGWEIYIGECANYUXIANG,CONGERGAINIANDEKEXUEXING、JINGQUEXINGJIUWUFADEDAOBAOZHENG。

                  2.系统比较与零碎描述。

                  BIJIAOZHENGZHIXUESHIZHENGZHIXUEZHUDUOFENZHIXUEKEZHONGWEIYIYIFANGFAMINGMINGDEXUEKE,XITONGDEBIJIAOSHIBIJIAOZHENGZHIXUEJIBENDEFANGFALUNYAOQIU。BIJIAODEQIANTISHIBIJIAODUIXIANGDEXIANGSIXINGYUCHAYIXING,YIQIUTONGZHONGZHIYI,YIZHONGZHITONG。ZAILINZITICHU“WEIQUANZHUYI”ZHISUOYIBIYAOSHI,SHIYINWEIKEYICONGQIJIEJUEZHENGZHITIZHIMIANLINDEGONGTONGWENTISHANGKANCHUWEIQUANZHUYIDEDUTEXING。ZHEIXIEWEIDUZHUYAOSHIHEFAXINGDEWEIHUHEQUDE、JINGYINGLUYONG、LIYIJUHEHEBIAODAYIJIZAISHEHUIJINGJILINGYUZUOJUECEDECHABIEFANGMIAN[11]254。ANZHAOLINZIDELUOJI,ZHEIXIEWEIDUSHIJISHANGSHIYONGYUBIJIAOJIQUANZHUYI、WEIQUANZHUYI、MINZHUDEZHIBIAO,DANSHILINZIBINGWEIJIUCIZHANKAIBIJIAO。ZAIBIRU,ZHENGZHITIXISHIZHENGZHIKEXUEHUADEDIANXINGSHUYUHEFENXIKUANGJIA,ZHENGZHIXITONGFENXI、JIEGOUGONGNENGZHUYIDENGSHIZHENGZHITIXIYANJIUDECHANGYONGLUJING。LINZIBAWEIQUANZHUYIJIEDINGWEIZHENGZHITIXI,DANBINGMEIYOUZUNXUNZHEIXIEFENXIKUANGJIA,JIMEIYOUYANJIUJINGJI—SHEHUIDENGYINSUDUIZHENGZHITIXIDEYINGXIANG,YEMEIYOUYANJIUZHENGZHIXITONGDUIJINGJI—SHEHUIDENGFANGMIANDEYINGXIANG,SHENZHIMEIYOUSHIYONGZHURUSHURU—SHUCHU、JIEGOU—GONGNENGZHEIYANGDESHUYU,ERSHIJIANGWEIQUANZHUYITIXIDEYANJIUYANGEXIANZHIZAIZHENGZHITEZHENGFANGMIAN,LINGYIFANGMIAN,JIUWEIQUANZHENGZHITIXINEIBUGUANXIKAN,YEWEIJIUZHENGZHIZHIDUZUOXITONGDE、ZHENGTIDEYANJIU。YINER,JINGUANLINZIJIANGWEIQUANZHUYIDINGYIWEIYIZHONGZHENGZHITIXI,DANMEIYOUXITONGDIYANJIUZHENGZHITIXI。ZONGZHI,CONGZHENGTISHANGKAN,LINZIBINGWEIJIUWEIQUANZHUYIZUOXITONGDEBIJIAOXINGYANJIU,SHENZHISHIYIXIEPIANDUANHUADEMIAOSHUHEGEBIEGUANDIANDECHENSHU。

                  3.二分法、三分法与多元分法。

                  RUQIANWENSUOSHU,LINZIZAIPIPING“JIQUANZHUYI—MINZHU”ERFENFADEJICHUSHANGTICHULE“JIQUANZHUYI—WEIQUANZHUYI—MINZHU”SANFENLEI,ZHIZAIZHUNQUEDILIJIEFEIMINZHUZHENGZHIXIANXIANG。JINRU20SHIJI90NIANDAI,YOUJINYIBUJIANGFEIMINZHUTIZHIFAZHANCHENGWEILEDUOYUANFENFA。ZHEIBIAOMING,LINZIZISHENDUIWEIQUANZHUYIZAIBUTONGSHIQIYOUBUTONGDERENSHI,BINGWEIWANQUANJIANGWEIQUANZHUYIYUFEIMINZHUTIZHIJIANLIDENGTONGGUANXI。MUQIANXUEJIEJIANGWEIQUANZHUYIDENGTONGYUFEIMINZHUTIZHIDEGUANXINGRENSHI,JIYULINZITICHU“WEIQUANZHUYI”GAINIANDEBENYIXIANGBEI,YEYULINZIGUANYUFEIMINZHUTIZHIFENLEIFADERENSHIXIANGZUO。SATUOLIZAIPIPINGJIQUANZHUYIYANJIUSHITICHULEMOXINGPIYIJICONGCUOWUZHONGXUEXIDEWENTI,RENWEILEIXINGXIHUABUZUSHICILEIYANJIUDEYIGEWENTI[23]。YINCI,YOUGUANWEIQUANZHUYISHIFEIMINZHUTIZHIDERENSHISHIFEIMINZHUTIZHIYANJIUSHANGDEYIZHONGFANZUXIANXIANG。

                  四、 重新认识林兹的“威权主义”

                  (一) “萨托利的传统”与概念分析路径

                  1.概念是方法论的组成部分。

                星力打鱼平台   GAINIANSHISHEHUIKEXUELILUNDEJISHI,ZAISHEHUIKEXUEYANJIUZHONGCHUYUJICHUXING、FARENXINGDEDIWEI,DAN“DABUFENYANJIUZHEDUIYUSHEHUIKEXUEGAINIANBENSHENDEGUANZHUQUEWEIHUQIWEI”[24]1。YIFANGMIAN,QUEFACONGFANGFALUNDEJIAODUQUSIKAO、RENSHIGAINIAN,KEXUEXINGBUZU。LINGYIFANGMIAN,ZAIJUTIYANJIUZHONGDUIYIXIEJICHUGAINIANQUEFASHENSHENTAOLUN,WANGWANGBUJIAFENXIDIQUSHIYONG。YOUSHANGWENKEZHI,“WEIQUANZHUYI”JIUMIANLINZHEIYANGDECHUJING。ZUOWEIGAINIANYANJIUDEDINGJIANRENWU,SATUOLIJIAOZAOZHUYIDAOGAINIANSHIYONGSHANGDEQUEXIANWENTI,BINGZHUZHONGCONGBIJIAOZHENGZHIXUEFANGFALUNDEJIAODUSHENSHIGAINIANJIQIYOUGUANWENTI,BINGBAGAINIANSHIWEIBIJIAOZHENGZHIXUEFANGFALUNDEYOUJIZUCHENGBUFEN。TATICHULEYIYUYIFENXIWEITEDIANDEGAINIANJIANGOULUN、GAINIANFENXILUN,YEJIBIJIAOZHENGZHIXUEZHONGGAINIANLILUNDE“SATUOLIDECHUANTONG”[25],TASUOGUANZHUDESHIRUHEZAIYANJIUDUIXIANGBUDUANKUODADEQINGXINGXIA,ZHAODAOYIGEKEYI“LVXING”YUBUTONGQINGJING、BUTONGDIYUDEGAINIAN,YIJIANLIQIDUIXIANGZHIJIANDEKEBIXING。

                  2.概念本质上是本体论的。

                  SATUOLIBA“GAINIAN”SHIWEIGUANYUSHIWUZHIDEJIEDING,YEJIGAINIANSHIGUANYUMOUYIXIANXIANGZHIJIBENGOUCHENGYAOSUDELILUN[24]2,GAINIANGOUCHENGYAOSUDEBIANHUAYIWEIZHESUOZHIXIANGDESHIWUDEBIANHUA。YINCI,GAINIANSHIDINGXINGDE,SHIHUIDA“WEISHENME”DE,GAINIANDEGONGNENGJIUZAIYUQUFENYIGESHIWUSHICIHUOBI,SHUYUAHAISHIFEIA。SHIWUSHISHENMEDEWENTI,YAOXIANYUDUOSHAODEWENTI。NEIMEYIGEHAODEGAINIAN,XUJUYOULIANGHAODEQUFENDU,ZAIHENGXIANGDEFENLEIZHONG,QUFENCHU“YOUJIEZHENGTI”,ZAITONGYIFENLEITIXIZHONG,ZAIZHONGSHUFENCENGLEIBIEZHONGXINGCHENGCHAYI。DANLINZIZUOWEIWEIQUANZHUYIYANJIUDEZHUYAOXUEZHE,ZAISHENMESHI“WEIQUANZHUYI”SHANGBINGMEIYOUQINGXIYIZHIDERENSHI。JIULINZIDELUNSHUERYAN,“WEIQUANZHUYI”YOUZHENGZHITIZHI、ZHENGZHITIXI、ZHENGZHIJUSHIDENGBUTONGZHIXIANG。YINCI,TONGSHUOSUORENWEIDEWEIQUANZHUYISHIZHENGZHITIZHIDERENSHIBINGWEIZHUYIDAOLINZILUNSHUDEDUOYIXING。

                  3.形式逻辑是基本的概念分析路径。

                星力打鱼平台   SATUOLICHANGDAOYANJIUZHEZUOYIGE“YOUYISHIDESIKAOZHE”[12]1033,YIWEIZHEYANJIUZHEBUNENGCHUNCUIMEIYOUFANGFALUNYISHI,YEBUKEBASHEHUIKEXUEBIFUXIANGWULIXUEZHEIYANGDEYINGKEXUE,“MEIYOUWENDUJIJIUWUFAJINXINGREDEYANJIU”[12]1033。TARENWEI,“FANGFALUNDEGUANJIAN”SHI“KEXUEYANJIUDELUOJIJIEGOUHECHENGXU”,RENHEKEXUEDOUSHILUOJIYINGYONGXUE。ZAIDUODACHENGDUSHANGJINXINGGAINIANFENXI,QUJUEYUDUODACHENGDUSHANGYUNYONGDANCHUNERJIANDANDELUOJI。BIJIAOZHENGZHIXUEZHONGDELUOJIXUNLIANSHOUXIANTIXIANZAIBUTONGDUIXIANGZHIJIANKEBIXINGDEJIANLISHANG。BUTONGDUIXIANGKEBIJIUYIWEIZHETAMENSHITONGYI“SHU”HUOTONGYI“LEI”。“SHU”HUO“LEI”QUELILEKEBIXINGDEXIANGSIXINGYAOSU,ER“ZHONG”“LEI”NEIDE“CHAYI”GOUCHENGLE“ZHONG”HUO“YAZHONG”DEYAOSU。SATUOLIRENWEISHIFOUNENGYIZHONGJIASHUCHADEMOSHIGOUJIANFENLEITIXISHIJIANLIKEBIXINGDEQIANTITIAOJIAN[12]1036。

                  (二) 分析政治体制的概念框架

                  1.“程序—行为”维度的政治体制。

                  ZHENGZHITIZHISHITIZHIFENXIDESHANGWEIGAINIAN,ZHEIYIZONGKUOXINGDEGAINIANCHANGYUZHENGFUXINGSHI、ZHENGFUTIXI、ZHILITIXIDENGGAINIANJIAOTISHIYONG。DANGQIAN,DUIWEIQUANZHUYIDEYANJIUZHUYAOSHIZAIMINZHUHUAZHENGZHITIZHIZHUANXINGDEPUXIZHONGJINXINGDE,DANZHENGZHITIZHIFENXIXUEPAIBINGWEIRENZHENDUIDAI“ZHENGZHITIZHI”DEGAINIANWENTI。MANGKEZAIZONGHEZHENGZHITIZHIXUEPAIDAIBIAOXINGGAINIANDEJICHUSHANGTICHUZHENGZHITIZHIDEFENXIKUANGJIA,JICHENGXUWEIDUYUXINGWEIWEIDU[26]。CONGCHENGXUWEIDUKAN,ZHENGZHITIZHIJUEDING(1)SHEIYIJIDUOSHAORENKEYIHUODEZHENGFUDEZHUYAOZHIWEI;(2)HUODEZHEIXIEZHIWEIDEFANGFA;(3)RUHEZUOCHUYOUYUESHULIDEGONGGONGJUECEDEGUIZE。CONGXINGWEIWEIDUKAN,ZHENGZHITIZHISHIZHIZHENGZHICANYUZHEZAISHIJIZHONGJIESHOUHUOZUNSHOUZHEITAOGUIZEDEZHUANGTAI。ZHEIYIWEIDU,YIFANGMIANZHIZAIKAOCHAZHENGZHITIZHIZHIDUHUADESHUIPING,YEJIUSHIZHENGZHIGUIZEBEILIJIEHEJIESHOU,BINGQIEXINGWEIYUZHIXIANGFUDECHENGDU。LINGYIFANGMIAN,ZHIZAISHUOMINGZHENGZHITIZHIBUJINJINSHIXINGSHI—FALVZHENGSHIGUIZE,YEBAOKUOSHIJIANZHONGDEFEIZHENGSHIGUIZE。

                  2.“国家—社会关系”维度的政治体制。

                  ZHENGZHITIZHISHIGOUJIANGUOJIAYUSHEHUIGUANXIDEGUIZE,ZHEISHIBIJIAOZHENGZHIXUEZHONGDEYIGEGONGSHI。GUOJIAYUSHEHUIGUANXIJUJIAOZHENGZHI—SHEHUIGONGTONGTIDEQUANLIRUHEZUZHI、RUHEFENPEI,KAOCHAGUOJIAQUANLIYUSHEHUIQUANLIDEBOYI、HUDONG。FEIXIMANRENWEI[27],KEYIBAZHENGZHITIZHISHIWEIZHENGZHIQUANLIZHONGXINDEZHENGSHIYUFEIZHENGSHIZUZHIJIQIYUGUANGDASHEHUIDEGUANXIWENTI。ZAIZHEIGEYIYISHANG,KADUOSUOZHICHU[28],ZHENGZHITIZHISHIGUANGONGMINYUTONGZHIZHEDEZHENGZHIBENZHI。WEICI,LUOYIJIANGZHENGZHITIZHIDINGYIWEI“YITAOGUANYUGOUJIANTONGZHIZHEYUBEITONGZHIZHEZHIJIANGUANXIDEGUIZE、CHENGXU、XIEYI”[29],YIJIEJUESHEHUIRUHETONGZHI、RENMINYUGUOJIAJIANGUANXI,TAYOUDIAOJIEGUOJIASHEHUIGUANXIDEZHIDUTIXIZUCHENG。ZHENGZHITIZHIDEGONGNENG,YIFANGMIANZAIYUJUEDINGSHEIYOUQUANHUODETONGZHIQUANLI、ZHENGFUDANGJURUHECHANSHENG、ZHENGFURUHEYUNZUO,LINGYIFANGMIAN,JUEDINGDANGQUANZHEZHIJIANDEQUANLIGUANXI、QUANLIXINGWEI。

                  3.“政治体制”层级与林兹“威权主义”关系辨析。

                  CONGSHANGSHULIANGGEFENXIKUANGJIAKAN,SUOWEIZHENGZHITIZHISHIGUANYUSHEIKEYIHUODEQUANLI、RUHEHUODEQUANLIDEGUIZE,YEJIGUANYUSHEITONGZHI、RUHETONGZHIDEGUIZE。NEIME,ANZHAO“SATUOLIDECHUANTONG”,FANSHIKEYIQUEDINGSHEIKEYIHUODEQUANLI、RUHEHUODEQUANLIDEGUIZEJIUSHI“ZHENGZHITIZHI”,FOUZE,JIUBUSHI“ZHENGZHITIZHI”。CONGQITEZHENGSHANGKAN,ZHENGZHITIZHISHIYIGUOJIAWEIDANWEIDEHUOZHEZHUYAOSHIZHIZHONGYANGZHENGFUDE,SHIYIGEGUOJIACENGMIANDE、ZHENGTIXINGDEGAINIAN。CONGZHONGSHUGUANXIDEGOUZAOKAN,ZHENGZHITIZHISHI“ZHONG”GAINIAN,QI“SHU”GAINIAN,KEYISHIMINZHUYUFEIMINZHU。PUREWOSIJI,CONGZUIXIAODINGYICHUFA,TICHULEMINZHUTIZHIDEJIBENPANDUANYUANZE[30]19-20。YISHIZUIGAOTONGZHIZHE、XINGZHENGSHOUZHANGBIXUYOUXUANJUCHANSHENG;ERSHILIFAJIGOUYOUXUANJUCHANSHENG;SANSHICUNZAIYIGEYISHANGZHENGDANG。XIANGFAN,FEIMINZHUTIZHI,JIWEIQUANZHUYITIZHI,XIANGYINGDEPANDUANBIAOZHUNWEI,ZUIGAOTONGZHIZHE、XINGZHENGSHOUZHANGWEIJINGXUANJUCHANSHENG,LIFAJIGOUWEIJINGXUANJUCHANSHENG,ZUIDUOCUNZAIYIGEZHENGDANG[30]28-29。CONGGAINIANDECENGJIKAN,LINZIDE“WEIQUANZHUYI”BINGWEITAOLUNSHEIKEYIHUODEQUANLIYIJIRUHEHUODEQUANLIDEWENTI。YOUCIKEJIAN,LINZIDE“WEIQUANZHUYI”BINGBUNENGGUISHUWEI“ZHENGZHITIZHI”。

                  (三) 威权主义是一种政治统治方式

                  ZAILINZIDEYANJIUZHONG,YOUYIZUZHONGYAOGAINIAN——“DUOYUANZHUYI、YOUXIANDUOYUANZHUYI(YOUXIANYIYUANZHUYI)、YIYUANZHUYI”——GOUCHENGLEYIZUKEBIDEDUIXIANG,TEBIESHIQIYOUWEIGUANZHUDEDUOYUANZHUYIYUYOUXIANDUOYUANZHUYIJUYOUZHONGYAODEBIJIAOJIAZHI。GENJULINZISUOSHU,SHOUXIANERZHEJUNSHUDUOYUANZHUYI,QICHAYIZAIYUQIANZHESHI“WUXIANDE”,HOUZHESHI“YOUXIANDE”。SUOWEIWUXIAN,QIZHONGYIGEBIAOXIANSHI,TASHIYIZHONGZHIDUHUADE,ZUZHIHUADEZHENGZHICANYUBUSHOUXIANZHI,SHIZERENXINGDEDUOYUANZHUYI。SUOWEI“YOUXIAN”,QIYIGEZHONGYAOBIAOXIANSHIJINZHIZHENGZHIFANDUILILIANGYIZHENGDANGXINGSHICANYUZHENGZHI,ZIYOUJIESHESHOUDAOXIANZHI,DANFANDUIBINGFEIBUHEFA,QIDUOYUANZHUYISHIFANYINGXINGDE[22]192-193。NEIME,TONGGUOXINGSHILUOJIPANDUANKEZHI,SUOWEI“WEIQUANZHUYI”DEFEIMINZHUTEZHENG,ZHUYAOZHIDESHIXIANZHIDUOYUANZHUYIDEYINSU,HUOZHESHIDAOZHIDUOYUANZHUYIYUYOUXIANDUOYUANZHUYICHAYIDEYINSU,ZHEISHISHISHANGSHIYIZHONGZHENGZHITONGZHIFANGSHI,ZHEIYESHIWEIQUANZHUYIDESUOZHI,TAYOULIANGGEWEIDU。

                  1.威权主义是一种政治规范。

                  LINZIZAIYANJIUZHONGQUFENLEZHIDUHUADEHEFEIZHIDUHUADEWEIQUANZHUYI。ZHEIZHONGQUFENBIAOMINGWEIQUANZHUYIBINGBUYIDINGTIXIANWEIWENDINGDEZHENGZHIJIANZHI,TAKEYIBUSHICHENGSHUCHENGXINGDEZHENGZHIZHIDU。BIRU,BAXIJUNRENZHENGQUANDEANLIBIAOMING,ZHISUOYOUWEINENGCHENGWEIWENDINGDEZHENGZHIJIANZHI,ZUIDADEWENTIZAIYUBUNENGZUIZHONGQUELIWEIQUANZHUYIDEHEFAXING。DANJISHIZAIZHEIZHONGQINGXINGXIA,WEIQUANZHUYIYIRANCUNZAI,ZAISHIJIANZHONGFAHUIZUOYONG。SHISHISHANG,WEIQUANZHUYISHIYIZHONGZHENGZHIGUIFAN,TASHIZHENGZHIYUNXINGDE“RUANJIAN”,QINEIHEJIUSHIQIANGDIAOQUANLIDEJIZHONG,QIANGDIAOQUANLILAIZISHANGBIAN,QIANGDIAOZHIXUYUJILV。

                  2.威权主义是一种政治手段。

                星力打鱼平台   LINZITONGGUOBUTONGDEJIAODUJIUXIBANYA、BAXIDEWEIQUANZHUYIZUOLESHENRUYANJIU。QIZHONGYIGEGONGXINGDESHIJIAOZAIYUBAWEIQUANZHUYISHIWEIYIZHONGZHENGZHISHOUDUAN。BIRU,ZICONG20SHIJI20NIANDAIXIBANYAXIANYUYANZHONGDEWEIJIYILAI,JUNFANGJIUSHITUYIDUCAIDEFANGSHISHIDEXIBANYADEFAZHANZOUXIANGZHENGGUI。LIWEILABINGBUYIWEIDUCAISHIYIJIANBUGUANGCAIDESHIQING,XIANGFAN,LIWEILARENWEIZHEIZHONGFUAIBANDEDUCAISHIWEIXIBANYAZUODE“WAIKESHOUSHU”[31]。ERFOLANGGEZHISUOYIJINZHIZHENGZHIHUODONG,SHITUJIANLIWUZHENGDANG、FANZHENGDANGDEZHENGQUAN,YIGEZHONGYAOYUANYINJIUZAIYUQIRENWEISHIXINGMINZHUJIXIBANYADAILAILEWEIJI。TONGYANG,BAXIJUNRENSHANGTAIHOU,CAIQUKUODAZONGTONGQUANLI、SUOXIAOYIHUIHUODONGFANWEIYIJIZHONGZHIYIYUANHUOMIANQUAN,JIANLIJUNJINGSHENXUNCHUJIDI、GUOJIAQINGBAOJUDENGSHOUDUAN,DAOCHUTAIZHENGDANGFA,GAIZUZHENGDANGZHIDU[32],WUXIANQIZHONGZHIYIHUI,KEGUANSHANGYOUHUANJIEWEIJI、HUIFUZHIXUDEZUOYONG。YOUCIKEJIAN,MIANDUIWEIJIZHUANGKUANGHUOJINJIZHUANGTAISHENZHISHIZHENGZHIHUNLUANZHUANGTAICAIQUZHENGZHIQIANGZHI,SHIYIZHONGCHANGJIANDEYINGDUIJUCUO。ZHEIXIEXIANZHISHENZHIBODUOZHENGZHIQUANLI、ZHENGZHIZIYOUDEQIANGZHISHOUDUAN,JIUSHIWEIQUANZHUYI。

                  (四) 威权主义具有独立性与混合性

                  1.威权主义具有独立性。

                  SUOWEIWEIQUANZHUYIDEDULIXINGJIUSHIBUYIFUYUQITAZHENGZHIXIANXIANGDEDULICUNZAIXING。DANGQIANLIUXINGDEGUANDIANRENWEI,WEIQUANZHUYISHIYIZHONGGUODUXIANXIANG,SHIQIANMINZHUZHENGZHIXIANXIANG,ZHEISHIZHUANXINGFANSHIDEYIZHONGLIJIE,SHIYIZHONGMINZHUMUDELUNSIWEIZHUDAODERENSHI,RENWEIWEIQUANZHUYIBIJIANGZOUXIANGMINZHU。ZHEIZHONGRENSHIHUSHILEWEIQUANZHUYIDEDULIXING,YEJIUSHIWEIQUANZHUYIDECUNZAI、YANBIAN、FAZHANBINGBUYIMINZHUWEIQIANTI,WEITIAOJIAN,YEBUYIJIQUANZHUYIHUOMINZHUWEIMUBIAO。DANGRAN,WEIQUANZHUYIDEDULIXINGBUDENGYUWEIQUANZHUYIBUHUIFASHENGBIANQIAN。XIANGFAN,QUELIWEIQUANZHUYIDEDULIXINGSHIRENSHIWEIQUANZHUYIFAZHAN、BIANQIANDEYIGEQIANTI。BUKAOLVWEIQUANZHUYIDEDULIXING,JIUWUFALIJIEWEIQUANZHUYIDEFAZHANDONGLIWENTI,YEWUFACHAOYUEZHUANXINGFANSHIDEJUXIAN,WUFALIJIEWEIQUANRENXINGDENGGAINIANDENEIZAIQUEXIAN。

                  2.威权主义具有混合性。

                星力打鱼平台   WEIQUANZHUYIDEHUNHEXINGSHIYIWEIQUANZHUYIDULIXINGWEIQIANTIDE,BINGQIETADEHUNHEXINGYEBUSHIJIQUANZHUYIYUMINZHUDEHUNHE,YEJIUSHI“WEIQUANZHUYI≠(BUFEN)JIQUANZHUYI+(BUFEN)MINZHU”。ZHEILIDEHUNHEXINGZHIDESHIWEIQUANZHUYIZUOWEIYIZHONGZHENGZHIGUIFAN、ZHENGZHISHOUDUANDENG,SHIYIYIDINGDEDUOYUANZHUYIWEIQIANTIBEIJINGDE。LINZITIDAODEYOUXIANDUOYUANZHUYI、YISHIXINGTAIKUANSONGDENGSHISHISHANGSHIWEIQUANZHUYIDE,DOUSHIDUOYUANZHUYIMINZHUYINSUDEJIZHONGBIAOXIAN。LINGYIFANGMIAN,ZAIMINZHUQUDESHENGLIDESHIDAI,MINZHUJIHUCHENGWEIRENHEZHENGQUANHEFAXINGDEWEIYILAIYUAN,MINZHUHUAYUCHENGWEIZHENGZHIZHENGQUEDEDAIMINGCI,XINGXINGSESEDEDANGPAI、ZHENGQUANDOUYIMINZHUWEIQIZHI,HUOYIMINZHUWEIYANSHI,MINZHUDEYIXIEJIBENJIZHIRUYIHUI、XUANJUDENGDOUYIBUTONGMIANMUCHUXIAN,ZHIBUGUOBUTONGDEZHENGZHILILIANGDUIMINZHUYOUBUTONGDELIJIE,YOUBUTONGDEZHUZHANG。YINCI,MINZHUYIJINGCHENGWEIZHENGZHISHENGHUODEJIBENPEIZHI,DANZAIZHEIZHONGQINGXINGXIAWEIQUANZHUYIRENGRANCUNZAI。ZHEISHIWEIQUANZHUYIHUNHEXINGDEYOUYIGEBIAOXIAN。

                  ZONGZHI,TONGGUOYISHANGFENXIKEYIFAXIAN,LINZIDUI“WEIQUANZHUYI”ZHEIGEGUANJIANGAINIANDEBAWO、YUNYONGBINGBUSHIQINGXIYIZHIDE,YOUCICHANSHENGDEWEIQUANZHUYIFEIMINZHUTIZHILUN,BINGWEIZAIXUELISHANGXINGCHENGTONGYIDEGAINIANKUANGJIA。CONGLINZIDEYANJIUKEYIKANDAO,WEIQUANZHUYISHIJISHANGSHIYIZHONGZHENGZHIGUIFAN、ZHENGZHISHOUDUANWEIYITIDEZHENGZHITONGZHIFANGSHI。TAJUYOUDULIXING,QICUNZAI、YANBIAN、FAZHANBINGBUYIMINZHUWEIQIANTI,WEITIAOJIAN,WEIMUBIAO。TAJUYOUHUNHEXING,SHIZAIYIDINGDEDUOYUANZHUYIXIADEZHENGZHIXIANXIANG。ZHEIYIJIEDINGHUISHIDEWEIQUANZHUYIZAILILUNSHANGYUFEIMINZHUTIZHIXIANGQIEGE,TUPOZHUANXINGXUEPAIDELILUNZHIGU。YIFANGMIAN,YOUZHUYUZOUCHU“XINGRONGCI+”“MINZHU”HUO“WEIQUANZHUYI”ZHENGZHITIZHIFENLEIDENINAO,GENGHAODILIJIEWEIQUANRENXING、WEIQUANCHIJIUXINGDENGWEIQUANZHUYIYANJIUDEXINJINKETI。LINGYIFANGMIAN,KEYILIJIEWEIQUANZHUYISHIPUBIANCUNZAIYUBUTONGDETIZHIZHIZHONGDE,YUSHIFOUWEI“MINZHU”TIZHIWUBIRANLIANXI。BIRU,MEIGUOGAOJIGUANYUANZAILIANGCIZHONGDONGZHANZHENGQIJIAN,DOUZHUZHANGZONGTONGBUSHENYAOJIZHONGWUXIANDEQUANLI[33]。ERZAI“BIESILANRENZHISHIJIAN”ZHIHOU[34],PUJINGJINYIBUQIANGHUAQUANLI,XIUGAI89GELIANBANGZHUTIZUIGAOXINGZHENGZHANGGUANCHANSHENGBANFA,JIANLICHUIZHIDEQUANLITIXI,JIAQIANGZONGTONGQUANLI,ZAOCHENG“ZHENGQUANDANG”SHISHISHANGDEZHENGZHILONGDUAN。ZHEIZHONGDUOYUANZHENGZHITIAOJIANXIADUIZHENGZHIQUANLIDEJIZHONGHUOZHENGZHILONGDUAN,YIJIJUYOUYIDINGBAOLITEZHENGDEZHENGZHIQIANGZHI,JIUSHIWEIQUANZHUYI。

                  五、 结 语

                  LINZIZHANGJIUYILAIZHUDAOZHEWEIQUANZHUYIDEYANJIUYICHENG、FENXILUJING,WEIQUANZHUYIFEIMINZHUTIZHILUNYIRANCHENGWEIXUEJIENANYIYUYUEDEXUESHUDINGSHI。DANZAIGAINIANCHUANBOGUOCHENGZHONG,XUEZHEMENDUILINZI“WEIQUANZHUYI”DEDUOYIXING、GAINIANDENEIZAIQUEXIANXIANYOURENZHENDESHENSHI,QUEFAZUGOUDEFENXI,DUILINZISUOLUNYUSUOZHENGBUYI、QIANSHUYUHOULUNBUYIDENGQINGKUANGYEQUEFAXUESHUPIPING。ZAOCHENGZHEIYIWENTIDEGENBENYUANYINZAIYUDUIWEIQUANZHUYIDERENSHISHIZAIMINZHUJIMINZHUHUALILUNDETOUJINGXIAJINXINGDE。WEIQUANZHUYISHIZHONGCHUYUMINZHUYANJIUDEDAOYINGZHIXIA,ZHEIZHONGGUANDIANRENWEIWEIQUANZHUYISHIMINZHUDEQIANSHI,MINZHUYOUWEIQUANZHUYIERLAI。ZHEIJIUSHIZHUANXINGXUEPAIDELUOJI,QILILUNYIHANJIUSHIWEIQUANZHUYIHUIYIMOUZHONGXINGSHIHUOFANGSHIZOUXIANGMINZHU。ZAIMINZHUZHUANXINGSHILINGHOU,XUEZHEMENYOUJIANGZHUTIJIZHONGZAIWEIQUANRENXINGSHANG。RANER,SUOWEIWEIQUANRENXING,RENGSHIYIGEMINZHUPIANHAOYANJIUZHEDEGAINIAN,QIJIBENLILUNLUJINGJIUSHIHUIDAYIXIEGUOJIAZAI“DISANBO”ZHONGWEISHENMEMEIYOUMINZHUHUA。ERZHEILIDEMINZHUHUAYOUSHIYIXIFANGZIYOUMINZHUWEIMOBANDE,ZHEISHILISHIZHONGJIELUNDELUNDIAO,TAPAICHULEBUTONGGUOJIAZHENGZHIFAZHANDAOLUDEDUOYUANXING、BUTONGMINZHUSHIXIANDEDUOYANGXING,SHIYIZHONGWEIYIZHILUNDEXUESHUGUANDIAN。

                  YINCI,ZAIDANGXIADUILINZIFEIMINZHUTIZHILUNDEPIPINGSHIFENBIYAO,YIFANGMIAN,TONGGUOFENXILINZIDEWEIQUANZHUYIFEIMINZHUTIZHILUNSHUOMINGLINZIDELUNZHENGBINGBUCHONGFEN,QIZISHENCUNZAIZHEJUXIAN,BINGFEIYANJINZHASHIDELILUN。LINGYIFANGMIAN,CHAOYUEWEIQUANZHUYIJIUSHIFEIMINZHUTIZHILUNDEGUANDIAN,JIANGWEIQUANZHUYIYUMINZHUMUDELUNJIEBANG,YUFEIMINZHUTIZHILUNQIEGE,SHIXIANZHENGZHIFANGSHIYUZHENGZHITIZHIDETUOGOU,BAWEIQUANZHUYISHIWEIYOUZISHENDULIXINGDEZHENGZHIXIANXIANG,WEIXINGCHENGYIZHONGWEIQUANZHUYILILUNDIANDINGJICHU,WEIZAIGENGGUANGKUODESHIYENEIGENGYOUXIAODITANSUOZHENGZHIWENTIXUNZHAOLILUNZIYUAN。

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                  田培利.林兹威权主义理论的局限与超越[J].武汉理工大学学报(社会科学版),2019,32(06):37-46.
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