星力打鱼平台

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                        毕业论文怎么写(拟定提纲+初稿成形)

                        时间:2018-11-12 来源:大学生毕业论文写作 作者:翟帅 本文字数:8954字

                          一、拟定提纲。

                        星力打鱼平台   ZAIBIYELUNWENJIEGOUQUEDINGYIHOU,ZHENGSHIZHUANXIEBIYELUNWENZHIQIAN,NIDINGXIEZUOTIGANGSHISHIFENBIYAODE。NIDINGTIGANGSHIJINRENBIYELUNWENXIEZUOZHUANGTAIXINGZHIYOUXIAODEBANFAZHIYI,QIZUOYONGZHUYAOSHIBANGZHUZHUANXIEZHESHULIXIEZUOMAILUO、XIHUASHEJILUNSHUKUANGJIAHELIQINGLUNJUCAILIAO。LUNWENTIGANGDEZHILIANGZHIJIEYINGXIANGDAOCHUGAOZHUANXIEDEZHILIANG。RUGUOZAINIDINGTIGANGSHIBUNENGDUILUNWENDEQUANJUZUOYIGEWANZHENGDEBUJU,BUNENGDUILUNWENKENENGSHEJIDECAILIAOHEWENTIZUODAOXINZHONGYOUSHU,ZEHENKENENGDAOZHICHUGAOZHUANXIEDEYAOZHE。YIBANLAISHUO,TIGANGXIEDEYUEWANSHAN,XIEZUODEMAILUOJIUYUEQINGXI。

                          SHISHISHANG,NIDINGTIGANGDEGUOCHENG,BENSHENJIUSHILISHUNSILUDEGUOCHENG。JINGGUOFANFUDITUIQIAOHESIKAO,SIWEIHUIGENGJIAZHOUMI,LUNWENBUJUHUIGENGJIAYOUXU。FANYINGDAOXINGWENNEIRONGHEJIEGOUXINGSHISHANG,ZIRANCENGCIFENMING,YOUTIAOYOULI。

                          (一)拟定论文提纲的重要意义。

                        星力打鱼平台   NIDINGTIGANGSHIZHUANXIELUNWENSHIYINGXIANZUOHAODEGONGZUO,DUIDAXUESHENGZHUANXIEBIYELUNWENYOUWEIZHONGYAO。

                          YINWEITIGANGSHIWEIZHENGPIANLUNWENDAQIDEYIGEGUJIA,SHIZUOZHEJIANGZIJIQIANQIDEYANJIUGOUSIJICAILIAODIAOPEI,YONGJIANJIEDEYUYANFUHAOJILUXIALAIDELUNWENKUANGJIATIXI。KEYISHUO,NIDINGHAOLETIGANG,LUNWENDEXIEZUOJIUSUANWANCHENGLESANFENZHIYI。SUOYI,NIDINGTIGANGDUILUNWENDEXIEZUOQIZHEZHONGYAODEZUOYONG。

                          1.拟定提纲是作者思路定型的过程。拟定提纲时,作者为了把材料组成一个中心明确、论证严密、条理清楚、详略得当、具有说服力的合理体系,就必须充分考虑和把握全文的谋篇布局、层次设置和逻辑顺序等多方面因素,使其有机地结合起来,形成一条明晰、畅达、连贯的思路。拟定提纲,就是作者整理思路,并用文字符号使之系统化、定型化的过程。

                          2.拟定提纲是论文格局形态化的过程。星力打鱼平台提纲是论文前期形态的简化形式。当作者的思路理清并加以定型的时候,论文的中心论点与各分论点、论点与材料、材料与材料之间的逻辑关系也就清晰起来了。作者据此对它们进行合理安排,使之各得其所,从而形成一个中心突出、层次井然、疏略适宜、结构严谨的论文框架体系。因此,最终用文字符号写成的提纲,把这个框架体系表达出来,就是论文格局形态化的过程。

                          3.拟定提纲为论文的写作和修改提供了依据和参照。如果精心拟定了论文提纲,看似花费了一定时间和精力,但为下面的写作铺就了通畅大道,写起来就得心应手,论文的质量也有了保证。待修改定稿的时候,再以提纲为参照,会更清楚地意识到写作中所存在的不足与缺陷,就容易对症下药,找到恰当的修改方法,最终写出自己满意的毕业论文。

                        星力打鱼平台   TONGSHI,NIDINGLUNWENTIGANGYEWEILUNWENXIEZUOSHIXUYAOZAISHOUJICAILIAOTIGONGLEYIJU。GENJUTIGANGKEZHI,NAXIEYIYOUDECAILIAOSHIKEYONGDE,NAXIECAILIAOSHIDUOYUDE,NAXIEFANGMIANDECAILIAOHAIYOUXIEBUZUDENG,YIMULERAN,CONGERQUEDINGCAILIAODEQUSHE,BUZHIYUCHUXIANMOUXIEBUFEN“YONGZHONG”、MOUXIEBUFEN“SHOUBIE”DEXIANXIANG。

                          (二)拟定论文提纲的要求。

                          1.要有全局观念。

                          CONGZHENGTICHUFAQUJIANCHAMEIYIBUFENZAILUNWENZHONGSUOZHANDEDIWEIHEZUOYONG。KANKANGEBUFENDEBILIFENPEISHIFOUQIADANG,PIANFUDEZHANGDUANSHIFOUHESHI,MEIYIBUFENNENGFOUWEIZHONGXINLUNDIANFUWU。

                          LIRU,YOUYIPIANLUNWENLUNSHUQIYESHENHUAGAIGEYUWENDINGSHIBIANZHENGTONGYIDE,ZUOZHEYIZHEJIANGxxSHIxxQIYEWEILI,SHUOZHIYAOGANBUZAIGAIGEZHONGYISHENZUOZE,YUZHIGONGTONGGANGONGKU,JIUKEYIQUDEDUOSHUZHIGONGDELIJIE。CONGQUANJUGUANNIANFENXI,WOMENJIUKEYIFAXIANZHEILIZHIJIANGLEQIYERUHEGAIGECAINENGWENDING,ERMEIYOULUNSHUTONGGUOSHENHUAGAIGE,ZHUANHUANQIYEJINGYINGJIZHI,TIGAOLEQIYEJINGJIXIAOYI,ZHIGONGSHOURUZENGJIA,ZUIZHONGDADAOSHEHUIWENDING。YINCI,ZHEIPIANLUNWENMEIYOUQUANJUGUANNIAN,LUNSHUBUTOUCHE。

                          2.突出中心论点,认真选取材料。

                        星力打鱼平台   GENJUZHONGXINLUNDIANDESHIJIXUYAO,JUEDINGCAILIAODEQUSHE。JIANJUESHEQIYUZHUTIWUGUAN、GUANXIBUDAHUOCHENJIUDESHUZITONGJIDENGCAILIAO。JINGUANZHEIXIECAILIAOSHIZUOZHESHAFEIKUXINSHOUJILAIDE,DANSHIWEILEQUEBAOLUNWENDEZHILIANG,BIXUSHIKELAOJI:CAILIAOSHIWEILUNDIANFUWUDE,WULUNDUOHAODECAILIAO,ZHIYAOYUSUOXIELUNWENWUGUAN,JIUYIDINGYAOSHEQI,CAINENGSHILUNWENDEZHONGXINLUNDIANTUCHU。

                          3.笔墨匀称,安排好各部分之间的比例。

                          YIBANLAISHUO,XUESHIXUEWEILUNWENDEJIBENJIEGOUYOUTICHUWENTI、FENXIWENTI、JIEJUEWENTIHUOZHEYOUXULUN、BENLUN、JIELUNSANDABUFENZUCHENG。DIYI、DISANBUFENZAITIGANGZHONGDOUYINGBIJIAOJIANLVE,DIERBUFENSHILUNWENDEZHUTIHEZHONGDIAN,YAOJIZHONGBIMOXIESHENXIETOU。YINCI,ZAINIDINGTIGANGSHI,DIERBUFENYAOXIANGXI、QUANMIAN。ZHEIYIBUFEN-BANYINGSHEZHI3~5GEWENTI,MEIGEWENTIZHISHAOYAOFENWEILIANGGECENGCI,CENGCENGSHENREN,CENGCENGTUILI,YIBIANTIXIANZONGLUNDIANHEFENLUNDIANDEYOUJIJIEHE,JIANGLUNDIANJIANGSHENJIANGTOU。

                        毕业论文写作

                          (三)拟定论文提纲的具体步骤。

                          1.确定论文提要,再加进材料,形成全文的概要。

                        星力打鱼平台   LUNWENTIYAOSHINEIRONGTIGANGDECHUXING。YIBANYIBENSHUDOUYOUFANYINGQUANSHUNEIRONGDETIYAO,YIBIANDUZHEYIDUTIYAOJIUZHIDAOSHUDEDAGAINEIRONG。TONGYANG,XIELUNWENYEXUYAOXIANXIECHULUNWENTIYAO。ZAIZHIBIQIANBALUNWENDETIMUHEDABIAOTI、XIAOBIAOTILIECHULAI,ZAIBAXUANYONGDECAILIAOCHAJINQU,JIUXINGCHENGLELUNWENNEIRONGDETIYAO。

                          2.初步拟定各部分的文字篇幅。

                          XIEHAOBIYELUNWENDETIYAOZHIHOU,YAOGENJULUNWENDENEIRONGKAOLVPIANFUDEZHANGDUAN,WENZHANGDEGEGEBUFENDATISHANGYAOXIEDUOSHAOZI。YIYIPIAN15000ZIDEXUESHIXUEWEILUNWENWEILI,RUGUOBENLUNBUFEN(10000ZI)ZHUNBEIXIESIBUFENNEIRONG,DIYIBUFEN2000ZI,DIERBUFEN2000ZI,DISANBUFEN3000ZI,DISIBUFEN3000ZI。ZHEIYANGDEYIXIANGXINGZISHUFENPEI,BIANYUZILIAODEPEIBEIHEANPAI,SHIXIEZUOGENGJUYOUJIHUAXING。XUESHIXUEWEILUNWENDEZHANGDUAN,YIBANYI12000~15000ZIWEIYI。

                          3.编写提纲。

                          YIPIANLUNWENTIGANGYINGFANYINGCHUYIXIAJIDIANNEIRONG。

                          (1)标题及副标题。
                          (2)论文的写作意图,包括选题理由题材价值、中心思想等。
                          (3)内容纲要。这是提纲的主要内容,也是论文结构的骨架。
                          ①第一部分:论点,论据一、二、三,简要结论。
                          ②第二部分:论点,论据一、二、三,简要结论。
                          ③第三部分:论点,论据一、二、三,简要结论。
                          (4)主要参考资料。

                        星力打鱼平台   TIGANGDENEIRONGYOUXIANGLVELIANGZHONG。JIANDANTIGANGYIBANZHIYOULIANGGECENGCI:EYAODITISHILUNWENYAODIAN;BIANPAILUNWENMUCI,ZHIYUGEBUFENZENYANGLUNZHENG、YONGNAXIECAILIAO、HEZHONGFANGFADENGDOUBUXIE。XIANGXITIGANG,JILIEGANGMU,HAIYAOXIECHUMEIBUFENDEZHUYAOLUNDIAN、LUNJU、CAILIAO、LUNZHENGFANGFAJIPIANFUDAXIAODENGXIANGXINEIRONG。

                          BIANNIXUESHIXUEWEILUNWENTIGANG,ZHUYAOHAIYOULIEXIANGSHIHECHENSHUSHILIANGZHONG,ZUOZHEKEYIGENJUXUYAOJINXINGXUANZE。

                          (1)LIEXIANGSHITIGANGSHIZUXIANTIAODIDAQIDEQUANWENDATIDEKUANGJIA,JIZUOZHEYONGJIANJIE、GAIKUODEJUZI、CAILIAOXUHAO,BAZHONGXINLUNDIAN、FENLUNDIANCAILIAOYIYIPAIKAI,ZHICHENGYIGECAOTU。LIEXIANGSHITIGANGDETEDIANSHIYIMULERAN、JIANMINGEYAO,BIANYUZUOZHEYUZHIDAOJIAOSHIHUOZHETARENGONGTONGTAOLUN、YANJIU。

                        星力打鱼平台   (2)CHENSHUSHITIGANGSHIYONGBUJIARENHEXIUSHIDECHENSHUJU,ZHIBAIDIBAFENLUNDIANHECAILIAO,FENDUAN、FENCENGDIBIAOSHUCHULAI。ZHEIZHONGTIGANGBUDANZAINEIRONGSHANGYIJINGCHENGSHU,ERQIEKEYIXIANSHIWAIXING,CHENGWEIXUESHIXUEWEILUNWENDESUOYING。XIEZUOSHI,JIBENSHANGBUYONGDADONG,ZHIXUANZHETIGANGDESHUNXUWANGXIAXIEJIKE。CHENSHUSHITIGANGSHISHISHANGJIUSHIXUESHIXUEWEILUNWENDECHUXING。

                          (四)拟定论文提纲的相关问题。

                          1.编写毕业论文提纲的两种写法。

                        星力打鱼平台   (1)BIAOTISHIXIEFA,JIYONGJIANYAODEWENZIXIECHENGBIAOTI,BAZHEIBUFENDENEIRONGGAIKUOCHULAI。ZHEIZHONGXIEFAJIANMINGEYAO,YIMULERAN,DANZHIYOUZUOZHEZIJIMINGBAI。BIYELUNWENTIGANGYI。BANBUNENGCAIYONGZHEIZHONGFANGFABIANXIE。

                        星力打鱼平台   (2)JUZISHIXIEFA,JIYIYIGENENGBIAODAWANZHENGYISIDEJUZIXINGSHIBAGAIBUFENNEIRONGGAIKUOCHULAI。ZHEIZHONGXIEFAJUTIERMINGQUE,BIERENKANLEYENENGMINGLE,DANFEISHIFEILI。BIYELUNWENDETIGANGBIANXIEYAOJIAOYUZHIDAOJIAOSHIYUEDU,SUOYI,YAOQIUCAIYONGZHEIZHONGBIANXIEFANGFA。

                          2.毕业论文提纲的推敲和修改。

                        星力打鱼平台   TIGANGXIEHAOHOU,HAIYOUYIXIANGHENZHONGYAODEGONGZUOBUKESHUHU,ZHEIJIUSHITIGANGDETUIQIAOHEXIUGAI。

                          TIGANGDETUIQIAOHEXIUGAIYAOBAWOLIANGDIAN:YISHITUIQIAOTIMUSHIFOUQIADANG,SHIFOUHESHI;ERSHITUIQIAOTIGANGDEJIEGOU。XIANWEIRAOSUOYAOCHANSHUDEZHONGXINLUNDIANHUOZHESHUOMINGDEZHUYAOYITI,JIANCHAHUAFENDEBUFEN、CENGCIHEDUANLUOSHIFOUKEYICHONGFENSHUOMINGWENTI,SHIFOUHEHUDAOLI;GECENGCI、DUANLUOZHIJIANDELIANXISHIFOUJINMI,GUODUSHIFOUZIRAN。RANHOUZAIJINXINGKEGUANZONGTIBUJUDEJIANCHA,ZAIDUIMEIYICENGCIZHONGDELUNSHUSHUNXUJINXING“WEIDIAO”.

                          3.毕业论文的基本结构。

                        星力打鱼平台   BIYELUNWENDEJIBENJIEGOUYOUXULUN、BENLUN、JIELUNSANDABUFENZUCHENG。XULUN、JIELUNZHEILIANGBUFENZAITIGANGZHONGYINGBIJIAOJIANLVE。BENLUNZESHIQUANWENDEZHONGDIAN,SHIYINGJIZHONGBIMOXIESHENXIETOUDEBUFEN,YINCIZAITIGANGSHANGYEYAOLIEDEJIAOWEIXIANGXI。BENLUNBUFENZHISHAOYAOYOULIANGCENGBIAOZHUN,CENGCENGSHENREN,CENGCENGTUILI,YIBIANTIXIANZONGLUNDIANHEFENLUNDIANDEYOUJIJIEHE,BALUNDIANJIANGSHENJIANGTOU。

                        星力打鱼平台   ZONGZHI,TIGANGSHILUNWENDEGUJIA,SHIZUOZHEZHIBICHENGWENDEYIJU。LIECHUTIGANGBUJINNENGSHIZUOZHESILUQINGXI、WENMAICHANGTONG,ERQIENENGSHIZUOZHEZONGGUANQUANJU、TONGPANKAOLV、ZHUAZHUYAOLING、TUCHUZHONGXIN。

                          二、撰写初稿。

                          BIYELUNWENDETIGANGNIDINGLE,JIEZHEJIUSHIZHUANXIE。YIJUBIYELUNWENTIGANGYONGWENZIXIECHENGPIANZHANGXINGSHIDECHUGAODEGUOCHENG,JIUSHIZHUANXIE。ZHEISHILILUNYANJIUCHENGGUOBIANCHENGCHENGXIANXINGWENZHANGDEGUANJIANYIBU。JIANGZHUANXIECHUDECHUGAO,JINGGUOFANFUXIUGAI,SHINEIRONGHEXINGSHIDADAOWANMEITONGYI,ZUIHOUXIECHUGUANDIANZHENGQUE、LUOJIYANMI、JIEGOUHELI、YUYANLIUCHANGDEFUHEGESHIDELUNWENYANGSHI,BIYELUNWENXIEZUODEJIBENGONGZUOCAISUANWANCHENG。

                          (一)撰写前的准备工作。

                          1.材料的再次整理、精选。

                        星力打鱼平台   ZAIXUANTI、SHOUJICAILIAODEGUOCHENGZHONG,WOMENYIJINGJILEILEDALIANGDEXIANGGUANCAILIAO,BINGZUOLECHUBUDECAILIAOZHENGLIGONGZUO。DANGJINRENZHENGSHIDEXIEZUOJIEDUANZHIQIAN,HAIXUYAODUICAILIAOJINXINGZAICIDEZHENGLI,YIBAOZHENGLUNWENDESHUNLIWANCHENG。

                          (1)YAODUISUOSHOUJIDEZHONGDUOCAILIAOJINXINGRENZHENDEFENXI。BINGFEIMEIYIGECAILIAODOUYOUJIAZHI,YINCIYAORENZHENYUEDU,ZIXIJIANBIE,JUEQUJINGHUA,CHONGFENFAHUIQIXUESHUJIAZHI。

                        星力打鱼平台   (2)YAOJIANCHAZHUYAODECAILIAOSHIFOUWANBEI。CAILIAODUOERQIQUAN,MEIYOUYILOU,SHIZUILIXIANGDE。

                        星力打鱼平台   DANSHI,SHIJISHANGWOMENHENNANZUODAOBASUOYOUDEXIANGGUANCAILIAODOUHAOWUYILOUDISHOUJIQILAI,ZHEIJIUYAOWEIRAOLUNWENDEHEXINWENTISHOUJIZHUYAOCAILIAO,WEILUNZHENGSUOYONG。

                          2.论文选题的再审查。

                        星力打鱼平台   ZAILUNWENZHENGSHIXIEZUOZHIQIAN,DUILUNWENXUANTIJINXINGZUIHOUDESHENCHASHISHIFENBIYAODE。YAOCONGSHIJIAN、TIAOJIAN、YIYIDENGFANGMIANDUIXUANTIZAIZUOSHENCHA,ZUIZHONGQUEDING。FOUZE,ZAIXIEZUODEGUOCHENGZHONGYINSHANGSHUWENTIERTINGBI,JIUHUILANGFEISHIJIAN、JINGLI,ZOUWANLU。SHENCHALUNTIYAOZHUYIYIXIALIANGDIAN。

                        星力打鱼平台   (1)ZHUKEGUANTIAOJIANSHIFOUWANBEI。YAOFENXIZIJIDEZHANGCHUHEDUANCHU,HAIYAOGAOQINGSHEHUIDEXUYAOHEXUEKEFAZHANDEQUSHI。ZHEIYANGCAINENGYANGZHANGBIDUAN,FAHUIZISHENYOUSHI,XUANQUZUILIYUFAHUIZIJICAIZHI、NENGLIDEWENTI。BIRUYAOYANJIUYOUGUANLUXUNDEKETI,KEYICONGWENXUE、YUYAN、WENTIDENGFANGMIANQUDINGTI,ZHEIYAOGENJUXIEZUOZHEDEZHISHIJIEGOULAIJUEDING。

                          (2)ZHUYIXIEZUOSHIJIANSHIFOUCHONGZU。ZUOWEIBIYELUNWEN,YOUHENYANGEDESHIJIANYAOQIU,YAOQUEBAOZAIGUIDINGDESHIJIANNEIWANCHENG。RUXUANTITAIDA,XIEZUORENWUGUOZHONG,JIUXUYAOJINXINGDIAOZHENG。

                          3.论文论点、论据、提纲的再检查。

                          LUNDIANSHILUNWENDE“LINGHUN”,SHIQUANPIANDE“GANG”,TONGLVQUANWEN。YINCI,ZAIZHENGSHIXIEZUOWENZHANGZHIQIAN,DUILUNDIANDEJIANCHASHIBIYAODE。QUEDINGLUNDIANDEZHENGQUEXINGSHIZUIJIBENDEYAOQIU。ZAIZHENGZHISHANG,LUNDIANSHIFOUJIANCHISIXIANGJIBENYUANZE,FUHEDANGHEGUOJIADELUXIAN、FANGZHEN、ZHENGCE;ZAIXUESHUSHANG,LUNDIANSHIFOUFANYINGLEDANGQIANXUESHUFAZHANQUSHI,SHIFOUJUYOUYANJIUDEYIYI。ZAICIJICHUSHANG,HAIYAOZHUYILUNDIANSHIFOUJIZHONG、MINGQUEHETUCHU,SHIFOUSHENKE,NENGBIANPIRENLIDIFANYINGSHIWUBENZHI。

                        星力打鱼平台   QUEDINGZHONGXINLUNDIANZHENGQUEWUWUZHIHOU,HAIYAODUILUNJUHETIGANGJINXINGJIANCHA。CONGWENZHANGZHENGTICHUFA,JIANCHAMEIYIBUFENZAILUNWENZHONGSUOZHANDEDIWEIHEZUOYONG。KANKANGEBUFENZHIJIANDEBILIFENPEISHIFOUQIADANG,WENZHANGPIANFUDEZHANGDUANSHIFOUHESHI,MEIYIBUFENSHIFOUNENGWEIZHONGXINLUNDIANFUWU。YAOKAOLVGEBUFENZHIJIANDELUOJIGUANXI。LUNWENDETIGANGYAOCENGCIFENMING,TIAOLIQINGXI,LUNJUYAONENGWEILUNDIANSUOYONG。CHUCIXIEZUOZHECHANGFANDECUOWUSHILUNDIANHELUNJUZHIJIANMEIYOUBIYAODELIANXI,GEGEBUFENZHIJIANMEIYOUXINGCHENGYOUJIDELUOJIGUANXI,LUNZHENGLUNDIANQUEFAYOULIDELUNJUDENG。ZAIJIANCHASHI,YAOYUYITEBIEZHUYI。

                          SHANGSHUGEFANGMIANDEJIANCHA,BUYIDINGYAOJUXIANZAIGUDINGDESHIJIANDUANNEI,YEKEYIZAIXIEZUODEGUOCHENGZHONGSUISHIJIANCHA,RUYOUWENTI,KELIJIXIUGAIHEBUCHONG。ZAIYIQIEZHUNBEIGONGZUOJIUXUHOU,JIUKEYIJINXINGLUNWENXIEZUOLE。

                          (二)撰写初稿的要求。

                        星力打鱼平台   GOUSIBIYELUNWENTIGANGXUYOUZHONGXINLUNDIANDAOGECENGCIDUANLUOJINXINGTONGPIANKAOLV,QICAOLUNWENSHIQUEZHENGHAOYANZHEXIANGFANDEFANGXIANG,YOUCIJU、DUANLUOCENGCIDAOQUANPIAN。ZHUANXIELUNWENCHUGAOYINGZHUYIYIXIAJIDIANYAOQIU。

                          1.按提纲写,集中精力,集中时间。

                        星力打鱼平台   JINGGUOJIANKUDEJIAOZHANGSHIJIANDEGOUSIHENIDING、XIUGAITIGANGDENAOLILAODONGZHIHOU,SILUGUANTONG,CAILIAOYIJINGSHUXI,DANAOZHONGCHUCUNDEXINXIHEYUANYOUDELILUNGENJIDOUCHONGFENDIAODONGQILAILE,ZHEISHIBIANHUICHUXIANYIZHONGTEYOUDEXIEZUOREQING,ZHEISHIQICAODEZUIHAOSHIJI。YAOZHUAZHUZHEIGESHIJI,JIZHONGSHIJIAN,YIQIHECHENG。ZHEIYANGXIEZUOBUJINXIAOLVGAO,ERQIEWENZILIANGUAN。SUOYI,BUYAOTUOLA,BUYAOSHISHIDADUAN。

                          RUGUONENGTUOLIYUANYOUHUANJINGJITIAN,KEZHAOGEPIJINGZHICHU,YIQIHECHENG;RUGUOBUNENGTUOLIYUANYOUHUANJING,ZHISHAOYAOZAIYIDUANSHIJIANJIZHONGXIEYIBUFEN。RUGUOWAIJIETIAOJIANJIEJUELE,JIUYAOJIEJUEZIJIDEXIEZUOXIGUANWENTI,ZHEIJIUSHIYAOFANGZHISHISHIKOUZIYANERSHISILUTINGDUNHUOZHILIUDAOYICHU,YOUYIBUQIAN。YOUSHIXIELEYIDUANJUEDEBUMANYIYOUZHONGXIE,HUOZHEGAILEYOUZHONGCHAO,CHAOLEYOUGAI,JIEGUOYIGEZIXIANGBUHAO,TINGLIUDABANTIAN,ZHEIZHONGBEILUXUNCHENGWEI“SHIBUJIUHUITOU”DEXIEFASHIBUYICAIYONGDE。LIDINGGEJUYIZHIXIEXIAQU,XIANBUGUANWENZI,SHENZHIZHAOBUCHUQIADANGDECIYUSHIKEXIANKONGZHE,YONGHANCHANGDEBIMOBAZHENGTIXIEXIALAI,RANHOUZAIGAI。

                          2.充分运用参考文献,注意全篇脉络的贯通。

                          ZHEIYIDIANYAOQIULUNWENZHUANXIEZHEDESIWEIHEYANGUANGBULIKAIZHONGXINLUNDIAN,ZAIQUANMIANYUEDUCANKAOWENXIANDEJICHUSHANG,YOUZHENDUIXINGDIQUSHE,BUYAOZAIQICAOSHICHEKAIQU、SHOUBUHUI,JIEWAISHENGZHI,PIANLIZHONGXINLUNDIAN。XIEZUOSHI,MINGQUELEZHONGXINLUNDIANZHIHOU,JIUYAOBATAZUOWEIZHONGXIN,SUOYOUDECENGCIDUANLUODOU“XIANGXIN”DILIANZAIYIQI,XIANGJIZHUZUOWEIQUANSHENGUGEZHONGSHUNEIYANG,BAQUANPIANWENZHANGZUCHENG--GEZHENGTI。

                          3.在词句上要注意自然通顺

                          LUNWENDECIJUYAOYUSHANGXIAWENDEYUYANHUANJINGXIEDIAO,YINGSHENGLVEDEJUZICHENGFENBIXUSHENGLVE,BUNENGSHENGLVEDEANYUYANXIGUANXIEXIALAI,YIMINGBAIXIAOCHANGWEIMUDE。

                          4.在每个层次、每个段落动笔之前要先考虑其内部结构。

                        星力打鱼平台   YINWEIBIYELUNWENGOUSISHI--BANBUNENGSHENRENDAODUANLUONEIBU,XIEZUOSHIYEBUYIKAOLVYIJUXIEYIJU。

                          (1)YAOBAZHEIYICENG-DUANDEZHUYAOYISIHECAILIAOANPAIYIXIA,YIQIUGENGHAODIBIAODACHUBENCENGCI、BENDUANLUODEZHUYAOYISI,BINGNENGYOUTIAOLIDIZHANKAI。

                          (2)YAOXUNQIUJIAOHAODEFANGSHIJIEJUESHANGXIAWENDEXIANJIE。

                          (3)ANZHAOBENCENGCI、BENDUANLUOZAIWENZHONGDEDIWEI,CHONGFENFAHUIQIFUWUYUZHONGXINLUNDIANDEZUOYONG。

                          5.大改小不改。

                        星力打鱼平台   NIDINGTIGANG、GOUSILUNWENBUKENENGBAYIQIEXIWEIZHICHUDOUXIANGTUOTIELE,QICAOSHIYIGECHUANGZAOGUOCHENG,ZHEIYIJIEDUANXIEZUOZHEJINGSHENGAODUJINZHANG,KEYIBALILUNSIKAOHEGOUSIDECHENGGUOJINYIBUJIANYAN、XIUDING、FAHUI、SHENGHUA,JIUHUIYOUXINDECHUANGZAOHETUPO。SUOYI,ANZHAOTIGANGXIE,JUEBUSHISHUFUSHOUJIAO,TIGANGSHIYIGEDAKUANGJIA,QICAOLUNWENDESHIHOUHUODONGYUDIHAISHIHENDADE。SUOWEIYUDI,JIUSHIZAIQICAODESHIHOUKEYIZHONGDIANJIEJUENEIXIEBUZHOUMI、BUHELI、BUTONGCHANGDEDIFANG。

                          ZAIQICAOBIYELUNWENGUOCHENGZHONG,BINGFEISHIYUDAOBUHESHIDEDIFANGJIUYAOTINGXIALAI,SHIFOUTINGXIALAIGAIDONGYOUYIGEYUANZE,JIAO“DAGAIXIAOBUGAI”.RUGUOFAXIANWENZHANGDADEFANGMIAN,XIANGZONGLUNDIAN、LILUNDEGUANJIANCAILIAO、ZHUYAODEGUANDIANDENGBIANHUALEHUODADEJIAZIYIZHENGTIJIEGOUYIYOULEWENTI,YAOLIJITINGZHU,XIANGHAOZAIXIE,SHENZHILINGQILUZAO,BUNENGJIANGCUOJIUCUO。RUGUOFAXIANXIZHIMOJIEHUOJUBUCUNZAIDEWENTI,RUCAILIAOBUGOU、BUHESHI、BUQUEQIE,XUYAOXIUGAI、HEDUI、CHAZHAO,KEXIANZUOSHANGJIHAO,DENGXIEWANZAIZUO。ZONGZHI,BUYAOBEIXIAOWENTI、XIAOMAOBINGTUOZHUBUNENGQIANJIN。ZAIZHEILI,GUODUANSHIBIYAODE,YOUYISHIYOUHAIDE。

                        初稿写作

                          (三)撰写初稿应注意的问题。

                        星力打鱼平台   SUIRANQIANGDIAOZAINIDINGTIGANGJIEDUANDUILUNWENDECAILIAO、LUOJIHEJIEGOUDENGJINKENENGZUOHAOCHULIHEBUJU,DANBIJINGTIGANGZHISHIYIGEXIEZUOKUANGJIA,YIXIEXIZHIDEDONGXIFANYINGBUCHULAI,DANGJIANGTIGANGYANYIWEIWANZHENGYANMIDELUNSHUSHI,NANMIANHUIYUDAOWENTI。SUOYI,JISHISHIZAITIGANGJIAOWEIWANBEIDEQINGKUANGXIA,ZHUANXIECHUGAOSHIRENGYAOKAOLVYIXIAWENTI。

                          1.论文题目的文字表述要准确。

                          LUNWENZHUANXIEZHEYAOSHIXIANKAOLVDAOBIERENTONGGUOWANGLUOCHAXUNGAILUNWENTIMUSHI,KEYILIYONGLUNWENLIDEGUANJIANZICHAZHAO。JISHIXUESHUZILIAOKUDECHAXUNXITONGDADOUYIJINGHANGAIGUANJIANZI,SHENZHIZHAIYAO,DANSHIHEXINDEGUANJIANZIHAISHIYICHUXIANZAILUNWENTIMUZHONGWEIYI。

                          2.核心论据要充实完善。

                          ZAIXIANSHIDELUNWENXIEZUOGUOCHENGZHONG,YOUYUZHUKEGUANDENGYUANYIN,SHOUJILAIDELUNWENCAILIAOKENENGNANYIDADAOLUNJUQUAN、NEIRONGXIN、CENGCIJIAOGAODENGLIXIANGDEZHUANGTAI,ZHEISHIHOUTEBIEXUYAODUICIZUOCHUQIADANGERQIAOMIAODICHULI。YIBANERYAN,RUGUOQUESHIDESHIDUIHEXINWENTIJINXINGZHICHENGDECAILIAO,JIUBIXUJINXINGMIBU。QUESHIWUFAMIBUSHI,ZEBIXUGENGGAILUNTI。DANSHIRUGUOYIBANWENTIDELUNJUCAILIAOBUZU,ERYOUQUESHIBUNENGZAIJINXINGCHONGSHIDE,ZEKEYIZAIBUYINGXIANGDAJUDEQINGKUANGXIAJINXINGJISHUSHANGDECHULI,BAOKUODANHUAWENTIHUIBIWENTIDENG,BURANGCIYAODEWENTIYANGAIYOUYIYI、YOUJIAZHIDEZHONGXINLUNDIAN。

                        星力打鱼平台   ZONGZHI,ZAIYIPIANLUNWENZHONG,BUKENENGHANGAISUOYOUWENTI,DANDUIHEXINWENTIDELUNSHUQUEYINGDANGYANJIN、YANMI。

                          3.注重论文的逻辑性。

                        星力打鱼平台   ZHUZHONGLUNWENDELUOJIGUANXISHIGUANHUYIPIANLUNWENXIEZUOZHILIANGGAODIZUIZHONGYAODEWENTI,DUICHUXIEZHEERYAN,YESHIXIEZUOZHONGZUIKUNNANDEWENTI。LUNWENYUQITAWENTIBUTONGDEGUANJIANJIUZAIYIGE“LUN”ZI。“LUN”DEHAO,LUOJIYANMI,SISIRENKOU,YILIFUREN;“LUN”DEBUHAO,LUOJIHUNLUAN,CIBUDAYI,BUZHISUOYUN。SUOYI,LUNWENLUOJIGUANXIDECHULIZHIGUANZHONGYAO。

                        星力打鱼平台   CONGZONGDEYUANZELAIKAN,ZAILUNWENXUANTIQUEDINGBUBIANDEQIANTIXIA,LUNWENDESUOYOULUOJIGUANXIDOUBIXUFUWUYULUNTI,BINGQIEJINJINWEIRAOZHONGXINLUNDIANLAIZHANKAI。ZAIGEGELUNSHUDECENGCIZHONG,YAOBAOCHILUOJIDEGAODUYIZHI,BINGQIEHUANHUANXIANGKOU,CENGCENGHUYING,CONGBUTONGDECENGCIHEJIAODUGONGTONGGOUCHENGDUILUNTIDELUNZHENG,ZHEIYANGCAINENGXIECHULUOJIYANMIDEHAOWENZHANG。

                        星力打鱼平台   LINGWAI,ZAIQICAOLUNWENCHUGAOSHIHAIYINGDANGZHUYI,SUIRANSHICHUGAO,DANSHIZAIWENZHANGDEJIEGOUXINGSHIJIWENZIBIAODADENGFANGMIANRENGRANYAOQIUYANGE,QIEBUNENGYINWEIYOUYIGE“CHU”ZIJIUJIANDAN、CUCAODIYINGFU,ZHEIBUJINHUIJILUNWENXIUGAIZAOCHENGHENDAKUNNAN,YEHUIJIZHIDAOJIAOSHIDEGONGZUOZAOCHENGZHANGAI,GENGHUIYANGCHENGBULIANGDEXIEZUOXIGUAN。SUOYI,ZAICHUGAOWANCHENGSHI,QIJIEGOUYINGDANGWANZHENGGUIFAN,BIAOTI、ZHAIYAO、GUANJIANCI、ZHENGWEN、ZHIXIE、CANKAOWENXIAN、FULUDENGYAOQIBEI,WENZIBIAODAYEYAOTONGSHUNLIUCHANG,BUYUNXUYOUGUODUODECUOBIEZIHEBINGJU。ZAIYOUTIAOJIANDEQINGKUANGXIA,KEXIANGZHIDAOJIAOSHITONGSHITIJIAODAYINWENGAOHEDIANZIWENGAO。

                          (四)撰写初稿的方法。

                        星力打鱼平台   LUNWENCHUGAOZHUANXIEDEFANGFAYINRENERYI,CHANGJIANDEFANGFAYOUYIXIALIANGZHONG。

                          1.按照提纲顺序依次起草法。

                          LUNWENTIGANGDESHUNXUPAILIE,SHIZUOZHEJINGGUOFANFUSIKAO、JINGXINANPAIDE,SHISHIWUBENSHENNEIZAILUOJIDEFANYING,YESHIZUOZHERENSHISHIWUDEGUOCHENG。YINCI,ANZHAOTIGANGDESHUNXU,XIANTICHUWENTI,ZAIFENXIWENTI,ZUIHOUJIEJUEWENTI,JIUKEYIZUODAOZIRANLIUCHANG,QUANWENGUANTONG,YIQIHECHENG。CIZHONGFANGFASHIHEDUIQUANWENGEBUFENDENEIRONGDOUYIYUNNIANGCHENGSHU,GEZHONGCAILIAOYEYIZHUNBEIQIQUANDEXIEZUOZHECAIYONG。

                          2.打破顺序分段起草法。

                        星力打鱼平台   YOUYUBIYELUNWENDEPIANFUJIAOZHANG,GEGEBUFENNEIRONGDECHENGSHUCHENGDUYOUXIANYOUHOU,YINCIYEKEYIBALUNWENFENCHENGRUOGANGEXIANGDUIDULIDEBUFENHUOZHANGJIE,YIBUFENYIBUFENDIQICAO。GEBUFENWANCHENGZHIHOU,ZAITONGCHOUJIANGU,KAOLVXIANJIEGUODU,ZUIHOUXINGCHENGYIPIANWANZHENGDEWENZHANG。ZHEIZHONGXIEFADEHAOCHUSHINENGGOUJIZHONGJINGLIXIEHAOMEIYIBUFEN,YOULIYUBAOZHENGLUNWENDEZHILIANG。DUIYUCHUXIEZHELAISHUO,ZHEIZHONGXIEFAKEYIFENSANNANDIAN,GEGEJIPO,GENGRONGYIBAWOXIE。XUYAOZHUYIDESHICAIQUFENDUANFENKUAIXIEFAYAOGENJUSHIJIQINGKUANG,ZHIDINGCHUFENJIEDUANXIEZUOJIHUA,JIYAOBAOCHIGEGEBUFENZHIJIANDEXIANGDUIDULIXING,YOUYAOBAOZHENGQUANWENDEWANZHENGTONGYIXING。

                          BULUNCAIQUSHANGSHUNAYIZHONGXIEFA,DOUXUYAOZHUYIYIXIAJIDIANYAOQIU。

                          (1)ZHONGXINLUNDIANTUCHU,ZHUCIJIEGOUFENMING。ZHIYOUJINJINZHUAZHUZHONGXINLUNDIAN,LAOLAOBAWOZHONGXIN,XIECHULAIDEWENZHANGCAINENGHUNRANYITI,YOUYIQIHECHENGZHIGAN。LUNDIANDEZHENGMINGYUBIAODASHIWENZHANGXIEZUOSUOYAOWANCHENGDEZHUYAORENWU。BIYELUNWENDEGEGEHUANJIE,DOUYINGWEIRAOLUNDIANZHANKAI,YISHILUNWENLUNDIANNENGGOUQUELIHELINGRENXINFUWEIYUANZE。RUGUOBUYIZHONGXINLUNDIANWEITONGSHUAI,LUNWENJIUHUIZHILIPOSUI,ZALUANWUZHANG。

                          (2)ZHUZHONGWENQIGUANTONG,WENCAIHUAMEI。ZAILUNWENQICAODEGUOCHENGZHONG,BUGUANSHI“LILUN”“BOLUN”,HAISHIXIEDIAOCHABAOGAO,WENQIDETONGCHANG、WENCAIDEHUAMEI,YESHIYIKAISHIJIUYINGGAIZHUYIDE。YAOZUODAOWENQITONGCHANG,XUBAWOGUODUZAIWENZHANGZHONGDESHIYONG。CHANGYONGDEGUODUFANGFAYOUSANZHONG:

                          ①YUNYONGGUANLIANCIHUOZHUANZHECIYU(RU“YINWEI”“SUOYI”“SUIRAN”“DANSHI”“RANER”“FANZHI”DENG)GUODU;②YUNYONGGUODUJUGUODU;③YUNYONGDUANLUOGUODU。

                          YAOZUODAOWENCAIHUAMEI,KEYICONGSIFANGMIANKAOLV:YUNYONGPAIBI。ZHONGFUDENGXIUCISHOUFAYITUCHUZHONGDIAN;QINGZHUGANQINGDEDIFANG,XUYAOMIAOBISHENGHUA;GAISHIDUZHECHANSHENGTESHUGANQINGDEDIFANG,ZEYAOBUXIBIMO;XINGWENHUOZHUANGZHONGYANSU,HUOXILIPOLA,HUOCHANGDAMINGBAI,HUOHUOPOQINGXIN。

                          (3)BIAODAZHUNQUE,YUYANJIANLIAN。ZHUANXIEBIYELUNWENSUOSHIYONGDESHIKEXUEYUTI,SUOYIYAOZHUZHONGWENZHANGDEZHUNQUE、JIANMING、TONGSU。ZHUNQUESHIYIQIEXUESHULUNWENYUYANBIAODADEDIYIYAOQIU,BAOKUOSHILIMINGQUE、SHISHIZHUNQUE、SHUZIZHUNQUE、YINWENZHUNQUE,HAIYAOZUODAOYONGCIQIADANG、YUYIMINGQUE、JUYIYANMI、GESHIGUIFAN、BIAODIANZHUNQUEDENG。LUNWENDEYUYANYAOJIANLIANMINGBAI,LIJIEFUCITAOYU、ZHONGFULEIZHUI。

                          (五)提高初稿撰写的质量。

                          BIYELUNWENCHUGAOYINGZAILUNWENZHONGQIJIANCHASHIXINGCHENG。ZHEISHILUNWENSUIRANYOULECHUXING,DANRENGBUKEFANGSONG,JIEXIALAIJIANGSHIGENGJIAYANJUNDEWANSHANYUXIUGAIDERENWU。ZHUANXIEZHEBIXUBENZHEJINGYIQIUJINGDESIXIANGTIGAOCHUGAOZHUANXIEZHILIANG,PAICHUWANNAN,ZAIBUDUANDEYUEDUYUDIAOZHENGZHONG,SHILUNWENDADAOLIXIANGXIAOGUO。

                          1.抓住论文核心,完善写作细节。

                        星力打鱼平台   CONGBIYELUNWENJIEGOUDECEHUADAONIZHILUNWENTIGANG,ZAIDAOLUNWENCHUGAODEZHUANXIE,YIPIANLUNWENZHONGYUDANSHENG。ZAIZHENGGE“DANSHENG”GUOCHENGZHONG,WULUNNAYIGEHUANJIEDOUDUIZHUANXIEZHETICHULEXIANGYINGDEYAOQIU。KEYISHUO,ZAIBIYELUNWENZHEIXIANG“GONGCHENG”ZHONG,CHUGAODEZHUANXIESHIZUIGUANJIANDEHUANJIE,TAJUEDINGZHELUNWENZHILIANGDEYOULIE,KAOYANZHEZHUANXIEZHEDEXIEZUOGONGDIHECHIZHIYIHENGDEGONGGUANJINGSHEN。YINCI,TIGAOCHUGAOZHUANXIEDEZHILIANG,YINGZAIXIEZUOZHONGZHUAZHULUNWENHEXIN,BUDUANWANSHANXIEZUOXIJIE。

                        星力打鱼平台   (1)JINJINWEIRAOLUNWENDEZHUTIHEHEXINGUANDIANJINXINGLUNSHU,BUPIANBULI,ZUODAODUIWENTIDECENGCENGFENXIBINGZHUYIJIEJUE,LIQIUZAIBIYELUNWENMULUZHONGXIANSHICHUYANMIDELUOJIXING。

                          (2)CHONGFENLIYONGZILIAO,WEILUNSHUZHUTIFUWU。JIBUNENGYI“LILUNCAILIAO”JIEJUE“LILUNWEN,TI”,MEIYOUSHIJIANLILAISHUOMINGWENTI;YOUBUNENGDUIJICAILIAO,JIANLIJIAODUO,DANLUNDIANMOHU。SUOYI,LUNWENCAILIAOBIXUZUOYIXIANGYINGDEQUSHEHEQIADAOHAOCHUDEANPAI,WEIQIRUCI,CAINENGSHILUNWEN“GUROUFENMING”.

                        星力打鱼平台   (3)CHULIHAOLUNWENJIEGOU、NIZHITIGANGHEQICAOCHUGAOSANZHEDEGUANXI,BUNENGGELIEYOUBUNENGWANQUANTONGYI。YOUDEXUESHENGDUIBIYELUNWENBAOYOUJIYUQIUCHENGDETAIDU,RULUNWENCAILIAOQUEDINGYIHOUJIUSHITUQICAOCHUGAO,ZHEIBUJINMEIYOUTIGAOBIYELUNWENDEZHUANXIEXIAOLV,FANERCHUXIANLEJIAOPINFANDE“FANGONG”XIANXIANG。YEJIUSHISHUO,BIYELUNWENZHEIYANGJIJUXUESHUJIAZHIDE“DAWENZHANG”,BUKEYIYICUERJIU,YIDINGYAOANJIBENDEBUZHOUXUNXUJIANJINDIWANCHENG。

                          (4)ZHUYIYUFAZHISHIDEYUNYONGHEYUYANBIAODADEWANZHENG。BIYELUNWENDEYUYANYAOMINGQUE,BUHANHUQICI;YONGYUYAOGUIFAN,TIXIANXUESHULINGYUDETEDIAN,BUSHIYONGFANGYAN、LIYU、SUYU、TUYUDENG;YONGYUYAOZHUNQUE,BUSHIYONGWENXUEYUYAN。ERZAIJUTIDEBIAOSHUSHANGZEBUNENGCAIYONGSANWEN、JIXUWENDENGWENTI“MAIXIAFUBI”“XIANYIHOUYANG”JI“DUOZHONGXIUCISHOUFADEYUNYONG”DENGSHOUDUAN,ERSHILIQIULUNDIANTUCHU,LUNJUCHONGFEN,HUANHUANXIANGKOU,CENGCIQINGCHU,LUOJIYANMIJIKE。

                          2.锤炼写作功底,坚定必胜信念。

                        星力打鱼平台   ZUOWEIBENKEJIEDUANDEXUESHENG,DI--CIZHUANXIEZHEIYANGDAXINGDELUNWEN,JIANGSHIYISHENGZHONGNANYIWANGHUAIDEJINGLI。ZAIZHEIYANGDEGUOCHENGLI,TABUJINSHIXIEZUOGONGDIDECHUILIANYUDAMO,ERQIESHIXIANLESHISHENGXIEZUOYUSHENMEISHUIPINGBUTONGCHENGDUDETIGAO。RANER,KUNNANYESHIJIEZHONGERZHI,ZAIZHEIZHONGQINGKUANGXIA,JIUYINGBAWOZHUANXIEYUANZE,ZHUANHUAZISHENLIESHI。

                        星力打鱼平台   DAXUESHENGZAIBIYELUNWENCHUGAOXINGCHENGYIHOU,YINGDUIZIJIDESHIJIZHUANXIESHUIPINGYOUYIGEKEGUANGONGZHENGDEPINGGU。ZONGJIECHUZHUANXIEHUANJIEZHONGZUIDADENANDIANZAINALI,SHIXUANCAIHAISHIZHIDINGTIGANG;SHIBUHUIYIANLISHUOMINGWENTI,HAISHIYONGYOULEJIAODUOANLIQUETILIANBUCHUXIANGYINGDELUNDIAN,DENGDENG。ZONGZHI,ZHIYOUCHAQINGXIEZUODE“BINGGEN”HOU,CAINENGJISHIDI“DUIZHENGXIAYAO”,YUZHIDAOJIAOSHIZUOSHENCENGCIDEJIAOLIU,YIBIANZAIXIAYIJIEDUANDELUNWENXIUGAIYUWANSHANZHONGZHUANHUAZISHENLIESHI。LUNWENZHUANXIEZHONGCHANGCHUXIANDEWENTIYOUYIXIAJIZHONG。

                          (1)GOUSIBUGOUZHENMI,YINGXIANGXINGWENGUOCHENG。YOUSHIHOUYINWEIGOUSIBUGOUZHENMI,DAOZHITIGANGXIEDETAICUCAO,ERDAOLEXIEZUOZHENGWENDEJIEDUAN,FAXIANXIEZHEXIEZHEJIUXIEBUXIAQULE。ZHEIJIUYAOZHONGXINGOUSI,KANDUIZONGLUNDIANBAWODERUHE,CAILIAOSHUXIDECHENGDU,JIEGOUANPAISHIFOUHELI。ZONGZHI,JINGGUOZHONGXINGOUSIBAWENTIXIANGTOU,BATIGANGXIEXI,JIUHUISHUNLIDIJINXINGXIAQULE。

                          (2)QUEFAXIEZUOXUNLIAN,XIABIYIPIANKONGBAI。SUIRANYANJIUYOUSUODE,GOUSILETIGANG,DANYITIBIJIUFASHU,XIEBUXIAQU,ZHEISHIYINWEIXUESHENGQUEFAYIZHONGZHANGQIDEXIEZUOXUNLIAN。ZAIZHEIYANGDEQINGKUANGXIA,HAISHIYAOSHISHIQIUSHIDIXIEXIAQU,MANMANXIUGAITIGAO,ZHIYAOYONGXIN,YIDINGNENGXIEHAO。

                          (3)CAILIAOBUNENGHETIGANGYOUXIAODUIJIE。ZHEISHIBUYAOZHEJI,KEYISHAOTINGYIXIAZAIKANKANCAILIAO,KANKANYOUGUANDEWENZHANG,BIANHUANYIXIAJIAODU,ZAIWAIJIEDEQISHIXIA,CHANSHENGWENSI,JIXUXIEXIAQU。

                          ZONGZHI,BIYELUNWENNINGJUZHEXUESHENGYUZHIDAOJIAOSHIDEXINXUE,YOUQISHIZAIZHENGGELUNWENDEZHUANXIEGUOCHENGZHONG,XUESHENGJIAYUWENZIDENENGLI、CAILIAODEZUZHI、JIEGOUDEHELIANPAIJITUCHUHEXINWENTIDECHANSHUDENGFANGMIAN,DOUHUIYOUSUOTIGAO。

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