星力打鱼平台

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                            40年来西藏僜人的学术研究进展

                            时间:2019-02-12 来源:西藏研究 作者:周园朝,马宁 本文字数:6731字

                              摘    要: 西藏的僜人是我国的未识别民族之一,学术界对僜人的研究始于20世纪80年代,90年代时出现了高质量的研究成果,21世纪后研究成果数量呈现出明显增加的趋势。纵观僜人的研究成果,多集中在族源、宗教、民俗、体质人类学等方面,研究成果相对较少,尚未形成系统的研究体系,因此,对僜人进行多学科、多角度的整体性研究显得非常必要。

                              关键词: 僜人; 社会文化; 田野调查;

                              Abstract: Deng is one of the unidentified nationalities in China. The academic research of the Deng people began in the 1980s,and high-quality research results appeared in the 1990 s. Since the 21 st century,the number of research outcomes are increased. Overview at the research results of the Deng people,most of them focus on ethnic origin,religion,folk customs,and physical anthropology. There are limited research outcomes and it is hard to form a systematic result. Therefore,it is necessary to conduct a multidisciplinary and multi-angle holistic study of the Deng people in the future.

                              Keyword: Deng People; Social Culture; Fieldwork;

                            星力打鱼平台   DENGRENYEBEICHENGWEI“DENGBA”,SHIWOGUOWEISHIBIEMINZUZHIYI,RENSHUDAYUEYOU1500RENZUOYOU,FENBUYUZHONGGUOXIZANGZIZHIQUDECHAYUXIAN,ZHUTIBUFENJUZHUZAIBEIYINDUFEIFAKONGZHIDEWOGUOZANGNANDIQU,DAYUEYOU5WANDUOREN。DENGRENYOUZIJIDEYUYAN,JI“DARANG”HE“GEMAN”LIANGGEYUZHONG,SHUZANGHANYUXIDEZANGMIANYUZU,DANMEIYOUBENMINZUDEWENZI,DENGRENYOUXINGSHI,ZAOQIYIKEMU、JIESHENGLAIJISHI。1959NIANXIZANGMINZHUGAIGEQIAN,DENGRENSHISHIDAIDAIZAIYUANSHISENLINZHONGSHENGHUO,YUWAIJIEDEJIECHUJIAOSHAO,SHANGCHUYUYUANSHISHEHUIDEMOQI,ZHIDAOMINZHUGAIGEHOU,DENGRENCAIZHUBUZOUCHUSHANLIN,QIWENHUAYEMANMANBEIWAIJIESUOZHI。

                              一、关于僜人的学术研究情况

                            星力打鱼平台   XUESHUJIEDUIDENGRENDEYANJIU,ZHAOSHIYU20SHIJI80NIANDAI。1980NIAN,ZHONGGUOSHEHUIKEXUEYUANMINZUYANJIUSUOPAICHUZHANGJIANGHUA、CHENNAIWEN、CHENJINGYUANDENGRENZUCHENGDIAOCHAZU,FUXIZANGCHAYUXIANKAIZHANDENGRENSHEHUILISHIDIAOCHA,BINGYU1990NIANCHUBANLE《DENGRENSHEHUILISHIDIAOCHABAOGAO》,CHENGWEIWOGUODIYIBENGUANYUDENGRENDEYANJIUZHEZUO,YESHIDENGRENZHUJIANZOURULEXUEZHEMENDESHIYE,XIYINZHEYIXIEHOUBEIXUERENCONGSHIDENGRENYANJIU。JIEZHIMUQIAN,XUESHUJIEGUANYUDENGRENDEYANJIUCHENGGUOJIZHONGZAIRENDEZUYUAN、MINSUWENHUA、ZONGJIAO、GEWUYISHUHESHEHUIWENHUABIANQIANDENGZHUDUOFANGMIAN。JIANYUXUESHUJIESHANGWURENZHUANXIEGUANYUDENGRENDEYANJIUZONGSHU,YINCI,BIZHERENWEIYOUBIYAODUIJINSISHINIANLAIDENGRENDEYANJIUCHENGGUOJINXINGSHULI。

                              (一)僜人的族源研究

                              作为我国人口较少的族群之一,僜人的族群归属尚无定论,学者们对僜人族源的界定也是众口不一,形成了两种观点,第一种是汉、藏、珞巴和僜人同源说,第二种是源于古羌族说。《僜人社会历史调查》(1990)是汉、藏、珞巴和僜人同源说的代表性着作,以阿加尼1的神话故事为依据,推断出僜人和汉族、藏族、珞巴族起源于同一祖先[1]。对这种观点提出异议的学者是郑连斌,他在《中国莽人、僜人、珞巴族与门巴族Heath-Carter法体型研究》(2010)中指出僜人和珞巴族在体质特征方面存在明显的不同,从这一侧面可以佐证僜人和珞巴族并非同源[2]。康龙丽通过将藏族和僜人的染色体进行对比分析,提出僜人具有独特的遗传特征,不同于藏族,认为生活在喜马拉雅山地区的僜人群体在文化和生活习俗上与东亚一些民族相似,而藏族和北亚的一些民族有更多的相似性[3]。张晓瑾则提出了僜人源于古羌族说,她将僜人与古羌人的民俗文化进行比较研究,认为古羌人的服饰、音乐舞蹈、抢婚习俗等都被僜人这一较为原始的族群很好地保留了下来[4]。在《僜人溯源———从其体质、宗教崇拜、民族迁徙的历史考析》(2015)中,她又对比僜人和古羌人的宗教信仰,认为僜人和古羌人都信奉万物有灵,古羌人对神树的崇拜与僜人对鬼树的崇拜两者有较大的相似性,这是古羌人南下迁徙遗传下来的宗教信仰仪式[5]。笔者认为,由于考古发现、体质测量资料的缺少,就目前仅有的这些研究成果而言,很难界定这两种说法哪种是完全正确的,还有待于学者们做进一步的探讨。
                             

                            40年来西藏僜人的学术研究进展
                             

                              (二)僜人的氏族研究

                              SHIZUSHIMINZUXUEDECHUANTONGYANJIULINGYUZHIYI。YOUYUDENGRENSUOZAIDIQUBIJIAOPIANPI,ZHANGQICHUYUXIZANGDEBIANYUANDIDAI,DENGRENDESHENGHUOZHUANGKUANGJIUXIANDEFEICHANGSHENMI,BUWEIWAIRENSUOZHI,ZHIZHIXIZANGHEPINGJIEFANGQIAN,DENGRENDESHEHUIFAZHANJIEDUANHAICHUZAIYUANSHISHEHUIMOQI。WOGUOXUESHUJIEZUIZAODUIRENDESHIZUJINXINGYANJIUDEXUEZHESHIZHANGJIANGHUA,TAZAI《LVELUNYUANSHISHEHUIWAJIESHIQIDEDENGRENSHEHUI》(1980)YIWENZHONG,FENXILEDENGRENDUTEDESHEHUIZHIDU,RENWEISHANGPINSHENGCHANSHIYUANSHISHEHUISHENGCHANGUANXIBIANGEDECUIHUAJI,JIASULEDENGRENSHEHUIZHIDUDEBIANGE,DENGRENDESHEHUIZHIDUZIXINZHONGGUOCHENGLIHOUKAISHIYOUSHIZUGONGYOUZHIZHIJIEXIANGGETIJIATINGSIYOUZHIGUODU,BINGMEIYOUJINGGUOCUNSHESUOYOUZHI[6]。WUCONGZHONGDE《DENGRENFUQUANZHIDEJIATINGYUHUNYIN》(1980)[7]HE《LUNDENGRENYOUXUEYUANXIANGDIYUANGUANXIDEGUODU》(1985)[8],CONGBUTONGJIAODUDUIDENGRENDESHIZUJINXINGLUNSHU,QIANWENMIAOSHULEDENGRENGULAODEHUNYINXISU,ZHICHUDENGRENDEHUNYINXINGTAIJINGLILECONGXUEYUANHUNDAOQUNHUN,ZAIDAODUIOUHUNDEFAZHANLICHENG,RENWEIDENGRENDEFUQUANZHIJIATINGBENZHISHANGSHIZHUANZHIDE,DENGRENDEHUNYINXINGTAIHAICUNZAIYIDINGDESHIZUCANYU;HOUWENCONGDIYUANJIAODUCHUFADUIDENGRENDESHEHUIZHIDUJINXINGYANJIU,RENWEIDENGRENZIMINZHUGAIGEHOUFUQUANZHIDEXUEYUANGUANXIZHUBUBEIDIYUANGUANXISUOQUDAI,XINGCHENGLEDIQUXINGSHOULING——“GABEIYAMEI”,SHEHUIGONGGONGQUANLIYEXIANGYINGDICHUXIANLECONGSHENPANDAORENPANDEJUDABIANHUA。

                              BIZHERENWEI,DENGRENSHIZUZHIDUDEZHANGQICUNZAIYUQITESHUDEDILIHUANJINGXIANGGUAN,XIZANGHEPINGJIEFANGQIAN,DENGRENYIZHIZAIYUSHIGEJUEDESHENSHANLAOLINZHONGSHENGHUO,ZIRANHUANJINGELIE,SHENGCHANLIFEICHANGDIXIA,SHIZUCHENGYUANBIXUJITIXIEZUOCAINENGSHENGCUN,ZHEIWEISHIZUZHIDUDEYANXUTIGONGLEKONGJIAN。XIANZAI,SUIRANDENGRENDESHIZUZHIDUYIJINGYINMEIZAILISHIDEZHANGHEZHONG,DANSHICONGZHANGJIANGHUA、WUCONGZHONGDENGQIANBEIXUERENDEYANJIUCHENGGUOZHONG,WOMENRENGRANKEYIKANDAODENGRENSHIZUZHIDUDEYINGZI,ZHEIWEIWOMENYANJIUDENGRENSHEHUITIGONGLEBAOGUILISHIZILIAO,YOUZHUYUWOMENKAIZHANJINYIBUDEYANJIU。

                              (三)僜人的原始宗教研究

                            星力打鱼平台   “YUANSHIRENSHIXIANGXINYOUXIANGDANGDUODEGUISHENCUNZAIDE,BUGUOTAMENDUIZHEIXIECHAOZIRANLILIANGDETAIDU,ZONGSHIXIANYUXIANGJINFANGFASHITAMENWEIZIJIMOUFULI。”[9]DENGRENYEBULIWAI,TAMENCHONGXINWANWUYOULING,RENWEIGUISHIWANWUDEGENYUAN,JIECHUGUIDEWEIXIEDEZUIHAOBANFAJIUSHITONGGUOGEZHONGYISHISHIRENBAITUOGUIDEJIUCHAN。XUESHUJIEGUANYUDENGRENYUANSHIZONGJIAODEYANJIUCHENGGUOZHONG,ZUIYOUDAIBIAOXINGDESHICHENJINGYUAN、ZHANGJIANGHUAERRENHEZHEDE《“GUOXIDOUYA”——DENGRENDESHENPAN》(1981)YIWEN,JILULEJIEFANGQIANDENGRENDEYUANSHIZONGJIAOXINGWEI,ZHICHUDENGRENTONGGUOSHENPANDIAOJIEJIUFEN,ZHEIZHONGSHENPANXISUJUYOUYUANSHIDEZONGJIAONEIRONG,RENWEIZAISHEHUISHENGCHANLIDIXIA、JIEJISHEHUICHUBUXINGCHENGDEQINGKUANGXIA,SHENPANXISUDUIBAOHUSIYOUJINGJIDECHENGZHANGHESHEHUIWENDINGJUYOUYIDINGDEZUOYONG[10]。ZHANGJIANGHUAYEDUIDENGRENYUANSHIZONGJIAODEXINGCHENGGUOCHENGJINXINGLECHANSHI,RENWEIWANWUYOULINGDEXINYANGSHIDENGRENRENWEIJINGLINGWUCHUBUZAI、WUCHUBUYOU,GUIYUGUIZHIJIANBINGWUZUZHIHELISHUGUANXI,ZHEIYEQUZHEDIFANYINGCHUDENGRENSHEHUIZUZHIDESONGSANZHUANGKUANG,JIYIXUEYUANWEINIUDAIDESHIZUZUZHIYIJINGJIETI。DENGRENDESANGZANGXISUZAIHENDACHENGDUSHANGYITUOZONGJIAOXINYANGJINXING,DUISIZHESUOSHIXINGDEGEZHONGZONGJIAOYISHIDOUSHIWEILEHUOZHEDERENDELIYI[11]。CHENJINGYUANZEGENGJINYIBUDUIDENGRENDEYUANSHIZONGJIAOJINXINGLEXITONGDELUNSHUHEKEXUEDEFENXI,RENWEIDENGRENXINGUIDEXINGWEIBIAOMINGLEDENGRENDEZONGJIAOXINYANGHAITINGLIUZAIYUANSHIZONGJIAOFAZHANGUOCHENGZHONGDECHUJIJIEDUAN,DENGRENCONGSHIYONGDELICHANGCHUFA,SUOCHONGBAIDEGUIDOUYUZISHENLIYIYOUGUAN,BIAOMINGLEDENGRENYUANSHIZONGJIAODESHIYONGXING[12]。

                            星力打鱼平台   CONGYISHANGXUEZHEDEYANJIUZHONGKEYIKANCHU,DENGRENDEYUANSHIZONGJIAOXINYANGSHITESHUDELISHISHIQIDENGRENSHENGHUOZHUANGTAIDEYIZHONGFANYING,CENGJINGZAIDENGRENDESHEHUISHENGHUOZHONGFAHUIGUOJIAOWEIJIJIDEZUOYONG,RANER,SUIZHESHEHUIDEBUDUANJINBU,DENGRENDEYUANSHIZONGJIAOXINYANGSANGSHILEYUANYOUDEJIESHINENGLI,BUNENGMANZUDENGRENDEJINGSHENXUQIU,ZHUJIANXIANRUSHUAITUIDEJINGDI。XUEZHEMENCAIYONGMINZUZHIDEFANGFADUIDENGRENDEYUANSHIZONGJIAODEJISHUHAOWUXUANNIANDIBIAOXIANCHUJINHUALUNDESECAI,ZHEIYIFANGMIANYUXUEZHEMENDEXUESHULICHANGXIANGGUAN,LINGYIFANGMIANYEFUHEDENGRENSHEHUIFAZHANBIANQIANDESHIJIQINGKUANG。

                              (四)僜人的民俗文化研究

                            星力打鱼平台   LISHISHANG,DENGRENSHISHIDAIDAIZAIGAOSHANMILINZHONGSHENGXIFANYAN,YUWAIJIEDELIANXIHENSHAO。XIZANGMINZHUGAIGEHOU,TAMENYUWAIJIEDELIANXICAIYOUSUOZENGJIA,20SHIJI60NIANDAI,ZAIZHENGFUGONGZUORENYUANDEQUANSHUOXIA,DENGRENZHUJIANZOUCHUSHANLIN,GUOQILEDINGJUSHENGHUO,QISHEHUIZHIDUYECONGYUANSHISHEHUIMOQIZHIJIEJINRUSHEHUIZHUYISHEHUI,CONGZHEIGEJIAODULAISHUO,DENGRENYESHUYU“ZHIGUOMINZU”。SUIRANDENGRENCHUANTONGSHEHUIWENHUADEZHIHOUXINGHEXIANDAIWENHUADEXIANJINXINGXINGCHENGLEQIANGLIEDEFANCHA,DANYOUYUMINSUDEWENDINGXINGTEZHENGFAHUIZUOYONG,DENGRENDECHUANTONGWENHUABINGMEIYOUZAIDUANQINEIGAIBIAN,QITESEMINZUWENHUAYIRANCUNZAI。YOUYUZHONGZHONGYUANYIN,XUESHUJIEGUANYUDENGRENMINSUWENHUADEYANJIUCHENGGUOXIANGDUIJIAOSHAO,ZUIZAOJINXINGZHUANMENYANJIUDESHICHENJINGYUANDE《DENGREN“GEBENG”TANXI》(1993),GAIWENRENWEIDENGRENDETOUSHICHENGLIUXIANXINGDEZHUYEZHUANG,CHANGCHANGYIZHUYURENZANMEIDUIFANGPINGEGAOSHANG,TICHULEDENGRENDESHENMEIGUANYICONGYUANSHIDEXINGXIANGMOFANGDAOCHOUXIANGXINGSHIDEYANBIANDEGUANDIAN[13]。LIUZONGCHANGDE《DENGRENWENHUAZONGSHU》(1997)DUIDENGRENDEYUYAN、YUANSHISHENGHUO、HUNYINXISU、ZONGJIAOXINYANGJINXINGLEMIAOSHUHEZONGHEXINGDEFENXI,DUIDENGRENZAINONGNUZHUJIEJIQISHIHEYAPOXIADEBEICANJINGYUYIJIYUANSHIDEFENGSUXIGUANJINXINGLELUNSHU,RENWEIRENCONGJIUJUSHENLINDEYUANSHIRENSHIDESHENGHUODAORUJINSHENGHUOANDINGFUYUDESHENGHUOXIANZHUANGSHISHEHUIWENMINGJINBUDEJIEGUO[14]。

                              21SHIJIYILAI,YOUXUEZHETONGGUODUIDENGRENCHUANTONGWENHUAHEXIANDAIWENMINGDEDUIBI,DUIJIEFANGHOUDENGRENXINSHENGHUODEMIANMAOJINXINGMIAOSHU,ZHICHUDENGRENSHEHUIYIRONGRULEXIANDAIHUAWENMINGDEFAZHANZHONG[15]。ZHEIYISHIQIHAICHUXIANLEDUIDENGRENMINSUWENHUAJINXINGZHENGTIXINGYANJIUDEXUESHUCHENGGUO,CHENLIMING、CAOXIAOYANDEZHEZUO《XIZANGMINSUWENHUA》(2003)DUIDENGRENDEYISHIZHUXING、HUNSANGJIAQUHEJIERILIYIJINXINGLEFEICHANGXIZHIDEJISHU,TONGGUODUIDENGRENDEFUSHIWENHUA、HUNSUWENHUA、SANGZANGWENHUAYIJIJIERIWENHUADEFENXI,RENWEIDENGRENDEMINSUWENHUABAOHANZHEZONGJIAOXINYANGHEJISIDEYUANSU,BINGQIANGDIAODENGRENZAIYUZANGZUZHANGQIDEJIAOLIUJIAOWANGZHONGSHENSHOUQIYINGXIANG,MINSUWENHUAYEBIANDEGENGJIAFENGFU[16]。GAISHUKANCHENGDENGRENMINSUWENHUAYANJIUDEJIDACHENGZHE,SHIJI《DENGRENSHEHUILISHIDIAOCHA》ZHIHOUDEYOUYILIZUO。

                            星力打鱼平台   SUIZHEXIZANGLVYOUYEDEFAZHAN,DENGRENDUTEDEMINSUWENHUAXIYINZHEZHONGDUOYOUKEQIANWANGCHAYUXIANTIYAN,ZHEIYIQINGKUANGYEYINQILEXUEZHEMENDEGUANZHU。ZHAOPEIYAN、LIUZHINENGDE《XIZANGLINZHIDENGRENMINSUCUNLVYOUGUIHUAYANJIU》(2012)CONGLVYOUFAZHANDEJIAODUCHUFA,TICHULEJIADALINZHIDENGRENMINSUWENHUALVYOUFAZHANLIDUDECHANGYI,RENWEIYAOCHONGFENWAJUE、BAOHU、CHUANCHENGDENGRENMINSUWENHUA,TONGGUOFAZHANLVYOUDAIDONGDANGDIDENGRENJUMINDEJINGJISHOURU,TONGSHIYEYAOZHUZHONGDUIDENGRENCHUANTONGWENHUADEBAOHU[17]。JIAOHONG、WUJINMINDE《XIZANGCHAYUXIANSHAQIONGCUNDENGRENWENHUASHENGTAILVYOUGUIHUATANTAO》(2012)YETICHULEFAZHANDENGRENCUNZHAIJINGJIBINGYUBAOHURENCHUANTONGWENHUAXIANGJIEHEDELVYOUGUIHUASILU[18]。KEYIKANCHU,HOULAIDEXUEZHEYANZHEQIANBEIXUEZHEDEZUJI,JIANCHIJINXINGTIANYEDIAOCHA,DUIDENGRENDEMINSUWENHUAJINXINGLEXINDEQUANSHI,TIXIANLEXUEZHEDERENWENQINGHUAI。

                              (五)僜人的歌舞艺术研究

                              “YOUXIYULE,SHIYIZHONGYIXIAOQIANXIUXIAN、DIAOJISHENXINWEIZHUYAOMUDE,ERYOUYOUYIDINGMOSHIDEMINSUHUODONG。TASHIRENLEIZAIJUBEIQIMADEWUZHISHENGCUNTIAOJIANDEJICHUSHANG,WEIMANZUJINGSHENDEXUQIUERJINXINGDEWENHUACHUANGZAO。”[19]CHANGGETIAOWUSHIDENGRENZHUYAODEYULEFANGSHIZHIYI,RENMENZAIMANZUJIBENSHENGCUNXUQIUHOU,TONGGUOZHEIZHONGFANGSHIYUYUESHENXIN,DADAOWUZHIXUQIUHEJINGSHENXUQIUDETONGYI。ZAIDENGRENDEWUDAOYANJIUFANGMIAN,AWANGKECUNDE《TANTANXIZANGDENGRENJIQIGEWU》(1987)SHIXUESHUJIEJIAOZAODUIDENGRENWUDAOJINXINGYANJIUDECHENGGUO,TABADENGRENDEWUDAOFENWEIHUIGE、WUSHIJISIWU、JIERIJITIWUHEPEIDAOWUSILEI,JIEKAILEDENGRENWUDAODESHENMIMIANSHA,TICHUYAOBAOHU、JICHENGHEFAYANGMINZUMINJIANWUDAO,SHIXIANCHUANCHENGDEJIANYI[20]。BAIMAYANGJIDE《LUNDENGRENDEGEWUYISHU》(2012)ZAIXISHOUAWANGKECUNXUESHUGUANDIANDEJICHUSHANG,HUYUYAOBAOHUDENGRENDEYOUXIUCHUANTONGWENHUA,JIJIFAJUEHEQIANGJIUDENGRENDEWUDAOYISHU[21]。CHENLIMING、CAOXIAOYANDE《XIZANGMINSUWENHUA》(2003)YEDUIDENGRENDEGECINEIRONGJINXINGLEFENXIYANJIU。MUQIAN,YOUYUGEWULEIYANJIUJUYOUHENQIANGDEZHUANYEXING,YANJIUNANDUHENDA,SUOYIXUESHUJIEDUIDENGRENGEWUYISHUDEYANJIUFEICHANGBUZU,XUYAOYANJIUZHEJIXUSHENRUDIAOCHA。

                              CIWAI,GUANYUDENGRENQITAFANGMIANDEYANJIUCHENGGUOHAIYOUFUAIMINDE《CONGLANZHIGUIXIZANGLUOBAZU、DENGRENSHEYINGTANZAOQISHAOSHUMINZUYINGXIANGDEZHONGYAOJIAZHI》(2008),DUILANZHIGUIXIANSHENG1956NIANHE1976NIANPAISHEDELUOBAZUHEDENGRENDEZHAOPIANJINXINGSHULI,ZHICHUZHEIXIEZHAOPIANSHIZUIZAOJUBEIXIANMINGMINSUYINGXIANGYISHIDEYINGXIANGZILIAO,YESHIRENSHILUOBAZUHEDENGRENXINGXIANGDEDIYIPIMINZUXUEYINGXIANG,KENDINGLEZHEIXIETUXIANGJIANDINGLISHI、MIBUHEJIUZHENGWENXIANDEZUOYONG[22]。LINGSHIJIANGDE《DENGREN》(2017)SUIRANSHISANWENSUIBI,DANQIXUESHUJIAZHIZAIYUZUOZHEGUANZHULEDENGRENSHENFENZHENGSHANGDEMINZUZUSHUZHEIYIXIANSHIWENTIDEJIEJUEZHIDAO[23]。

                              二、僜人研究的特点

                              CONGYANJIULICHENGSHANGLAISHUO,DENGRENYANJIUJINGLILESANGEFAZHANJIEDUAN:ZAI20SHIJI80NIANDAIDEKAITUOQI,QIANBEIXUEZHEMENKEFUZHONGZHONGKUNNAN,SHENRUDENGRENJUZHUDI,SOUJILEDALIANGDEDIYISHOUZILIAO,FABIAOLEDALIANGXUESHULUNWEN,QIZHONGYOUYICHENJINGYUAN、ZHANGJIANGHUAZUIWEIZHEMING,YINWEITAMENSHIGUONEIZUIZAODUIDENGRENJINXINGDIAOCHAYANJIUDEXUEZHE,QIYANJIUCHENGGUODUOFABIAOZAIGUOJIAJIQIKAN《MINZUYANJIU》SHANG,YINQILEXUESHUJIEDUIDENGRENZHEIYIQUNTIDEGUANZHU,YEWEIHOURENDEYANJIUJILEILEBAOGUIDEZILIAO。20SHIJI90NIANDAISHIDENGRENYANJIUDEZHONGYAOSHIQI,SUIRANWENZHANGJIAOSHAO,DANCHUXIANLE《DENGRENSHEHUILISHIDIAOCHA》ZHEIBENZHONGLIANGJIDEDIAOCHABAOGAO,CHENGWEIDENGRENYANJIUDEQUANWEIZHEZUO,SHUOMINGJINGGUO80NIANDAIDEJILEI,DENGRENYANJIUYIJINGXINGCHENGLEBIJIAOXITONGDEYANJIUTIXI。JINRU21SHIJIHOU,XUESHUJIEDUIDENGRENDEYANJIUCHENGGUOCHENGXIANCHUZHUJIANZENGJIADETAISHI,DAYUEYOUYIBUXUESHUZHEZUOHE20DUOPIANLUNWEN,ERQIECHUXIANLEDUOXUEKEJIAOCHADEYANJIUQUSHI。

                              CONGYANJIUFANGFASHANGLAIJIANG,CONGZUICHUDEMINZUXUETIANYEDIAOCHAFANGFADEGUANGFANSHIYONG,ZHUANXIANGLEKUAXUEKEDEDUOYUANYANJIUFANGFAGONGYONG,SHENGTAIXUE、TIZHIRENLEIXUE、YIXUEHEYISHUXUEDENGXUEKEZHISHIYEBEIYANJIUZHESHIYONG,TEBIESHIXIANDAIKEXUEJISHUDESHIYONGYOULIYUJIEJUEDENGRENYANJIUZHONGXIANGZUYUANZHEIYANGDEFUZAWENTI,KUOZHANLEDENGRENDEYANJIULINGYU。

                            星力打鱼平台   CONGYANJIURENYUANDEMINZUCHENGFENHEJIEGOUSHANGLAIJIANG,ZUIZAODEDENGRENYANJIUZHEDOUSHIHANZUXUEZHE,ZHEIYUDANGSHITESHUDESHEHUIHUANJINGMIQIEXIANGGUAN,HOULAI,YIXIEZANGZUXUEZHEYECANYUQIZHONG,GAIBIANLEYANJIUZHEDEMINZUCHENGFEN,DANSHANGWEICHUXIANDENGRENBENMINZUXUEZHEDEYANJIUCHENGGUO,ZHEISHIMUQIANDENGRENYANJIUZUIDADEYIHAN。

                              三、僜人研究中存在的问题

                              ZAIDENGRENYANJIUQUDECHENGJIUDETONGSHI,YEBUNENGHUSHIDENGRENYANJIUZHONGSUOCUNZAIDEWENTI。

                              (一)研究成果数量不多,多以论文的形式出

                              XIAN,XUESHUZHEZUOZHIYOU2BU,ZHIYUELEDENGRENYANJIUSHUIPINGDETIGAO。SUIZHESHIDAIDEFAZHAN,DENGRENSHEHUIYIJINGFASHENGLEJUDABIANHUA,DANXUESHUJIEBINGMEIYOUKAIZHANLEISIYU20SHIJI80NIANDAINEIYANGDEJIAODAGUIMODIAOCHA,SUIRANYEYOUYIXIELINGSANDEDIAOCHA,DANHAIBUNENGWANZHENGDITIXIANCHUDENGRENSHEHUIDEFAZHANBIANHUA,YINGXIANGLEDENGRENYANJIUDEYANXUXING,CONGZHEIGEYIYISHANGLAISHUO,DENGRENDEYANJIUZILIAOJILEIDERENWUHAIWEIWANCHENG,XUYAOHOULAIXUEZHEJINYIBUNULI。

                              (二)研究人员出现断层情况,没有产生足够的学术影响力。

                              SHOUDENGRENSUOCHUDILIHUANJINGGUOYUPIANPIHERENSHUJIAOSHAODENGYINSUDEYINGXIANG,CONGSHIDENGRENYANJIUDEXUEZHESHULIANGYIZHIBUDUO,ERQIEJIZHONGZAIMINZUXUELINGYU,SUIZHEFAHUIKAITUOXINGZUOYONGDELAONIANXUEZHEDETUIXIU,MEIYOUQINGNIANXUEZHEGENJIN,RENCAIDIAOBI,ZHISHIXUESHUDUIWUXIANRULEQINGHUANGBUJIEDEKUNJING,ZHEIJIDADIZHIYUELEDENGRENYANJIUDEFAZHAN。

                              四、结语

                            星力打鱼平台   JIN40NIANLAI,XUEZHEMENDUIDENGRENDEYANJIUFENGFULEWOGUOMINZUXUEDEYANJIUYUANDI,WEIDENGRENZAIMINZUXUEJIEYINGDELEYIXIZHIDI,DANXIANZAIZHEIYICHUANTONGYANJIULINGYUDEFAZHANQIANJINGBINGBUMINGLANG。WOMENRENWEI,XUESHUJIEJIXUDUIDENGRENSHEHUIJINXINGQUANMIANDETIANYEDIAOCHA,CHUBANMINZUZHIZHEZUO,XITONGFANYINGDENGRENSHEHUIDEQUANMAO,ZHIYOUZHEIYANG,HUOXUNENGGOUDAIDONGYIXIENIANQINGXUEZHEGUANZHUDENGRENZHEIYIQUNTI,BINGZHILIYUXIANGGUANDEXUESHUYANJIUGONGZUO,YIMIBUMUQIANDENGRENYANJIUDEBUZU。

                              参考文献

                              [1]中国社会科学院民族研究所.僜人社会历史调查[M].昆明:云南人民出版社,1990:10-12.
                              [2]郑连斌,陆舜华,张兴华,等.中国莽人、僜人、珞巴族与门巴族Heath-Carter法体型研究[J].人类学学报,2010(2).
                              [3]Longli Kang.Genetic structures of the Tibetans and the Deng people in the Himalayas viewed from autosomal STRs.Journal of Human Genetics[J].(2010)55.
                              [4]张晓瑾.僜人与羌族、珞巴族、藏族的体质及民俗事项对比分析[J].湖北经济学院学报,2015(7).
                              [5]张晓瑾.僜人溯源---从其体质、宗教崇拜、民族迁徙的历史考析[J].湖北工业大学学报,2015(3.
                              [6]张江华.略论原始社会瓦解时期的僜人社会[J].民族研究,1980(2).
                              [7]吴从众.僜人父权制的家庭与婚姻[J].民族研究,1980(1).
                              [8]吴从众.论僜人由血缘向地缘关系的过渡[J].西藏研究,1985(2).
                              [9][俄]普列汉诺夫.没有地址的信·艺术与社会生活[M].曹葆华,译.北京:人民文学出版社,1962.
                              [10]陈景源,张江华.“郭西斗雅”---僜人的神判[J].中央民族学院学报,1981(3).
                              [11]张江华.僜人的原始宗教及其社会影响[J].西藏民族学院学报,1989(2).
                              [12]陈景源.僜人的原始宗教[J].中央民族大学学报,1994(4).
                              [13]陈景源.僜人“格崩”探析[J].民族研究,1993(2).
                              [14]刘宗昌.僜人文化综述[J].西藏艺术研究,1997(4).
                              [15]王健,丁武军.察隅僜人生存状态考察报告[J].江西科技师范学院学报,2002(4).
                              [16]陈立明,曹晓燕.西藏民俗文化[M].北京:中国藏学出版社,2003.
                              [17]赵佩燕,刘智能.西藏林芝僜人民俗村旅游规划研究[J].四川林勘设计,2012(1).
                              [18]焦红,吴金岷.西藏察隅县沙琼村僜人文化生态旅游规划探讨[J].西安建筑科技大学学报,2012(4).
                              [19]钟敬文.民俗学概论[M].上海:上海文艺出版社,1999.
                              [20]阿旺克村.谈谈西藏僜人及其歌舞[J].艺研动态,1987(1).
                              [21]白玛央吉.论僜人歌舞艺术[J].西藏艺术研究,2012(3).
                              [22]付爱民.从蓝志贵西藏珞巴族、僜人摄影谈早期少数民族影像的重要价值[J].中国摄影家,2008(4).
                              [23]凌仕江.僜人[J].创作与评论,2017(3).

                              注释

                            星力打鱼平台   1CHUANSHUOHENJIUYIQIAN,ZAIDADISHANGYOUYIGEJINRENJIAOAJIANI,TAHEYIZHICIXINGHOUZIJIEHUNHOUSHENGLESIGEERZI,LAODAJIAO“DONGKE”,LAOERJIAO“DONGMA”,LAOSANJIAO“DONGDU”,LAOSIJIAO“DONGDAI”。YOUYITIAN,“DONGDAI”SHANGSHANKAIKENHUANGDIHUILAIHOUFAXIANSANGEGEGEDOUZOULE,DAGEDAOLECHUJINZICHANLIANGSHIDEPINGYUAN,CHENGLEHANZU;ERGEDAOLENENGZHONGZHUANGJIAYOUNENGFANGMUDEDIFANG,CHENGLEZANGZU;SANGEJIUZAIBUYUANDESHANQUCHENGLELUOBAZU;XIAODILIUZAIJIALI,JIUSHIJINTIANDEREN。

                              周园朝,马宁.近四十年来內搜芯孔凼鯷J].西藏研究,2019(06):114-118.
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